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World War I, Historic Fact
World War I represented a historical fact of great importance marked by war clashes between the great industrial and military powers of Europe from July 28, 1914 until the end of 1918. This war was originally referred.
The causes of the conflict focused mainly on the rivalry between the countries involved that sought a world command position, struggle in which the United States remained neutral practically until the end. Due to the long and hard battle, which lasted four years, it was necessary to seek an agreement between the parties involved that would finally lead to an armistice.
Starting in 1918, World War I was persisted, without possible solutions and disposition to decline among the sides. Given this situation, Woodrow Wilson, president of the United States, called on European nations that were involved in the war to stop fire and put an end to the conflict. In this way, the Head of State proceeded to write a speech that he would present to the Congress of the E.AND.OR.Or known as the fourteen points of Wilson. This speech would expose proposals that would allow to mitigate the consequences of war with world and fair peace agreements of peace. These points would not only benefit the winning countries but also the defeated. But how were these 14 points related to the causes of World War I and what were the reasons why the United States entered it?
The main argument of the origin and relationship of Wilson’s 14 points with the deep and immediate causes that raised the First World War, was from the search for solutions that put an end to the clashes that had Europe submerged in a field of war. The first five points of the proposal are closely linked to these foundations and intended to avoid more confrontations between nations through “the elimination of secret diplomacy, the freedom of use of the seas, free change, the reduction of the weapons and The right of peoples to dispose of them ”, thus creating a harmonious political environment among the countries involved (Arancibia, 2018).
- Open agreements and non -secret diplomacy in the future: at the beginning of the 20th century, diplomatic agreements between governments were secret and never known by societies. Finishing the nineteenth century and starting the 20th, a system of alliances was created between the main European powers, two major sides: the triple alliance formed by Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy and the triple entente entered by France by aliating with England and Russia for face the rise of the new Germany. In 1915, Italy decides to join this side. Being that any alliance or treaty, was commercial, political or military was confidential, Wilson’s first point was created to avoid future secret coalitions and tensions between the political relations of the countries, such as those raised in the period known as La Paz Armed.
- Absolute freedom of navigation in peace and war within jurisdictional waters: this point was formulated thinking of one of the reasons why the United States decided to join war when the British ship "Lusitania" was attacked without prior notice by A German submarine. The Germans began an unrestricted underwater war for the simple fact of wanting to obtain a victory as soon as possible over England, who for being considered the great global empire since the 18th century, controlled the seas and trade routes thanks to naval growth. Given this situation, the government of President Woodrow Wilson strongly demanded the suspension of underwater war under threat of interrupting diplomatic relations with Germany.
- Disappearance of economic barriers: it meant establishing free trade between peoples without any rivalries to be able to quickly restless economically after the First World War. This would allow the famine and the economic problems suffered by the population in times of war.
- GUARANTEE OF REDUCTION OF NATIONAL ARMAments: We wanted to avoid the increase in weapons of the countries immersed in armed conflicts. At the beginning of the 20th century, the world was characterized by the emergence of imperialist tensions, by the control of the colonies, especially in Africa, and by the economic rivalries caused by the second industrial revolution. Although during the period between 1871 and 1914 there were no important war conflicts, Germany was increased their military level very quick war. During the armed peace, the second industrial revolution was determined by rapid industrialization, growth of production, improvements and armament advances. War cannons with greater scope of objectives and war ships were built to transfine airplanes.
- Readjuste, absolutely impartial, of colonial claims: this point intended to eradicate the invasion and claim of colonies originated during the war. As they were, the territories of Alsace and Lorena snatched by the German empire to France during the Franco-Prussian war in 1871, the Moroccan crisis for the colonization and distribution of the territories of Africa and by the Balkan crises, whose countries sought their Independence of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. President Wilson sought that the benefits of governed citizens were of equal importance than government ambitions.
The second group of points, from 6 to 14, was designated to present territorial restructuring, reconstruction of the most affected countries and their restitution of freedoms and sense of belonging.
In points 6, 8 and 11, the withdrawals of the territories of France, Russia, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro were mentioned in order for the armies located in the invaded countries to give way to the economic and infrastructure recovery of these countries. Germany would have to withdraw their troops from Russian territory in the ability of this country to recover economically without obstacles by German troops. It was also requested that the territories of Alsace-Lorena be returned to France and that the relations of the Balkan states affected by the crisis were friendly friendly.
On the other hand, points 7, 9, 12 and 13 raised the recovery of borders and sovereignty of countries. Belgium, which from the beginning was neutral, had been entrance as a battlefield for the Germans, regardless of their political position, leaving only destruction in that country. Wilson requested its restoration and free power as well as border reform. Additionally, the troops of Romania, Serbia and Montenegro had to retreat, the non -Turks of the Ottoman Empire had to develop without interventions and Poland should be an autonomous state with access to the sea in order to boost their economy as a nascent nation.
The tenth point presents the proposal on the opportunity for an autonomous development of the peoples of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. This empire was composed of several nations, whose Slavic villages were dominated by the Germanics. The Slavs sought to become independent but the Austro-Hungarian would never accept it since it would bring the total dissolution of the empire. The dream of the Slavs was to have its own country called Yugoslavia where they could live with Croats, Serbs, Macedonians and Bosnians despite their differences that separated them from the Empire. The Serbs, being the nationalist leaders of the Empire did not want to be governed by a German emperor and much less Catholic since the Serbs were Orthodox Christians.
The Serbs, in their search for their freedom, murdered the archduke Francisco Fernando, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914 during a visit. The Serbobosnio, Gavrilo Princip, belonging to the secret and ultra-nationalist organization "Mano Negra", was responsible for such an act, to which the Austro-Hungarian emperor sent an ultimatum to the Serbian government requesting him to dissolve and arrest all members of the organizationResponsible for murder and send them to the courts of the Empire. Serbia does not comply with the defendant and before this, the Austro -Hungarian Empire declares war. Due to the alliance system, attacking a country was to attack others;Chaos had begun. Austria-Hungary had the support of Germany. On the other hand, Russia supported Serbia and on August 1, 1914, Germany declared war and August 3 to France.
From that moment everything was triggered as a spiral. On August 4, England declared war on Germany by not respecting the neutrality of Belgium. On August 10, the Austro -Hungarian Empire attacked Russia and on the 12th of the same month, France and England are declared reciprocally. Successively, on the 23rd, Japan, who had good relations with England, declares war on Germany and on August 25 Austria to Japan. At this time, the only power that remained neutral was the United States. This point had the end that the nations linked to the Austro-Hungarian Empire became independent making their own decisions without anyone’s interference.
Finally, the fourteen point meant the most important, after the proposal for the creation of the League of Nations, known today as the Organization of American States (OAS). Woodrow Wilson’s intention was to create an organism that regulated all nations so that there is cooperation, collective security and enduring peace that cease the struggles and will boost development among all countries.
These 14 points meant a proclamation of policies that would collaborate in the peace negotiations with the purpose of ending the war and finally achieving the long -awaited peace that for four years of struggle, all of Europe expected. Another argument of the relationship between the fourteen points of Wilson and the causes of World War I. For that year, neither of the two sides obtained an advantage over the other with a view to a definitive defeat and the war was parked. The American intervention reinforced the allies and thus conquering their objectives.
But what was the trigger for the United States to decide to join the war conflict? The country led by Woodrow Wilson maintained its neutral policy during the first years of war, even in the face. The German general Ludendorff needed to find a German victory as soon as possible against England. The union between socialists and government entities had begun to break for the abandonment of German socialist leaders and promptly the Spartakhist league would demand an immediate end of the war. Because the general needed to find a solution to this situation, he ordered an unrestricted underwater war.
German submarines received orders to attack any commercial ship, against international maritime laws. On May 15, 1915, the sinking of the British ship "Lusitania" occurred where 268 Americans were killed. Wilson did not yield to this provocation and got Germany to accept not to sink more merchant ships without prior notice, an agreement that does not hard, since in March 1917, three commercial ships were attacked with German torpedoes. Faced with this new fact and with Wilson’s re -election in power in 1916, the situation changed and the United States was finally preparing to war. One last event was the determinant in this decision. Wilson suspected that Germany was financing Mexico to create riots at the borders with the United States. His suspicions were clarified with the interception, for the British Secret Service, of a secret telegram sent to Mexico where Germany assured him that if the war would give him the states of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona. Thus, when on April 6, 1917 the United States declares war on Germany and its allies, joining strength with the triple entent.
The 14 Woodrow Wilson points represented an important proposal, which was looking for peace agreements with the aim of ending war and seeking the reconstruction of the affected countries. However, the motion was not taken into account by Congress or by triumphant countries. England and France created their own peace agreements with the sole purpose of humiliating the main losing countries of the conflict, Germany and Austria-Hungary. This of course created great discomfort in defeated countries, giving rise to a feeling of resentment and revenge.