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World War I and Versailles treaty
The Versailles Treaty was a peace treaty that was signed on June 28, 1919 after World War I. The objective by which the Versailles treaty was implemented was to give peace and tranquility to the world which had just been witnessing one of the most destructive wars in the world, likewise, ending the conflict in which much of the world was involved.
The present monographic work aims to carry out a critical analysis about the causes and consequences for the Versailles treaty to be signed, in the same way, the first World War and its impact will be analyzed in general and its impact, in addition, it will be about explaining inWhat was this treaty, what their closures were and the form that influences Germany. Finally, we will try to answer the investigation question. To what extent Versailles’ treaty influenced the economic and social aspects in the Republic of Germany after the First World War 1914 to 1918?, with the use of various primary and secondary sources among the most relevant the entitled books: "The Treaty of Versailles" and "The First World War" written by the LIC. Miguel Ángel Huergo and Pierre Renouvin respectively, additionally academic magazines and other resources were used to base the analysis.
The monographic work will be specified in the direct and indirect relationship that the Treaty of Versailles had in Germany because it was the country that most influenced and had great participation, emphasizing the conditions established by the treaty, and what were the mandates.
The first war conflict that involved great international powers is known as the First World War that was a war collusion that happened mainly in the European continent, during the year of 1914 and 1918. The demographic losses were innumerable, they are estimated that more than 10 million men lost their lives during this event, this figure is superior contrasted with other previous wars (First Opium War in 1839-1842 and the second in 1856-1860 were two conflictsBetween Chinese World and Britain powers). The immense death toll is due to the technological advances that existed among the opponents of each country, including the creation of war tanks which caused immense damage to their enemies, the flamethrower and poisonous gases whose function was to eliminate these. Likewise, the construction of media such as radios, aircraft carriers, submarines, machine guns.
During the Great War all the great global and industrial powers of that time were involved, so that the First World War was raised some background that were: the rivalries that existed between several European countries, the European Empire had disintegrated into two setsAnd there was a conflict between these two sides (France, Great Britain and Russia against Germany, Italy and Austria Hungary).
In addition, the development of Europe through the consolidation of II Industrial Revolution and technological advances allowed new industrial powers to emerge, which aimed to fight the existing powers, among it was Britain who supplied with its products almost the entire continentEuropean until the late 19th, Holland, Russia..
At the beginning of the 20th century, the imperialism of Great Britain and France were superior because they were the countries with the most colonies, however, Germany did not have a great imperialist power such as France and Great Britain, that is why it wishes to colonize new countriesHowever, Great Britain and France flatly refuse to Germany’s decision. Between 1905 and 1911 a conflict is unleashed in the Brown territory in which France intended to colonize as well as Germany, despite this disagreement both countries sign a treaty to maintain peace for the moment.
After the conflict in Morocco, France wishes to recover the territory of Alsace and Lorena, but Germany had already taken it in the year of 1871, this became a humiliation for France, the elasticity of the French increases when they find out that Germany intends to imposetheir language in the colonized territories.
On the other hand, colonial rivalries had developed, Poland who was divided between the countries of Russia, Austria and Prussia. In the country of Austria the government was tolerant to Polish nationalism, while in Prussia the language of origin is tried, and in Russia the Tsar, or emperor of the same, gave encouragement to Polish nationalism so that it could be integrated into the Russian government,However, the Natives of Poland did not agree with remaining these countries that is why at the beginning of the war there is a conflict between each of the Poles that resided in different countries.
In the Balkans who was Turkey’s territory, a conflict was unleashed on the eve of the war and the rigidity between Austria and Russia is unleashed, this conflict was known as Balcanic wars, the first Balkan war happened in 1912 where several villages (Serbia,Greece, Romania and Bulgaria) rose against the Turks and achieved independence, after independence Turkey was completely weakened that is how the ambitions of the Austro -Hungarian and Russian empires were carried out with great success. Austria-Hungarian intended to eliminate the slavery that existed, while the Russian empire wanted to have influence among all peoples especially in Serbia.
Military rivalries: All powers had begun an armament career before the conflict, the arms race causes the military army to increase significantly, France feared its rival Germany who had more industrial power, Germany’s only objective was to overcome FranceAnd Great Britain, while, Great Britain had always been the undisputed owner of the seas, so it was aimedGreat Britain and France.
At that time the media became an important weapon in the mood states of the fighters, Renouvin tells that human losses in the countries involved both: Germany, France and Russia reached around 8.500.000 men.
To develop the conflict between these countries there was a fundamental cause that was the crime of Francisco Fernando de Austria, who was killed on June 28, 1914 in Sarajevo for a Bosnian student. Austria asks Serbia who was allied with Russia to allow him to do investigations of the death of the archduque, Serbia refuses flatly, which unleashes the beginning of the conflict in which July 23 Austria manifests the war to Serbia, but immediately Russia comes out in help in helpSerbia, later Germany attacks Russia and France and Invade Belgium, at that moment Italy declares war to Germany and Italy attacks Austria.
With the previous background the countries are divided between triple entente and triple alliance.
Both alliances wanted to attack the enemy, which is why they developed tactics and strategies, including: the Germans in 1891 used the Schlieffen technique to assault France, it consisted of addressing the French precedently that the Russians can react and organize and attack theFrench front and then in the Russian front, however, this plan fails because there was a hard resistance by the French. On the other hand, the strategy of the French was Plan XVII carried out in 1911 by General Joffre, l was to develop surprise attacks, but this plan failed because the German people defended themselves since they were well organized.
In the length of the war, new technological advances appear that would help countries to destroy the enemy, including machine guns, cannons, suffocating gases, fences, trenches, tanks, trucks, airplanes, submarines. The United States and Japan later join the triple entente.
In the year of 1917, after the end of the Great War all of Europe was in crisis, there were strikes, famines and deaths, a situation that was used by Germany that decidesprovides financial, military and military support to triple entity countries. Years later Germany and the central powers had lost the battle.
The winners of the Great War proposed a peace agreement, especially to Germany that consisted of the distribution of their territory, economy and militia, the peace agreement was called "Versailles Treaty", with this treatment in Germany the feeling was awakenedof revenge because some clauses considered unfair were imposed later becoming the main causes for World War II initiated by Germany.
Germany before and after the great war
Germany before the Great War was in economic and technological development, the leader of the country had the objective of expanding its economy and technology to be developed, which benefited its own development and to compete in the complex international economy
All loser countries in World War I had great demographic losses such as the death of approximately 10 million men, and other millions of injured and mutilated.
At the end of the First World War, the Triple Alliance was divided into republics and their economies were affected, having lost a peace agreement, but they focused especially on Germany because being the most powerful power of the central empires of the central empiresAnd they decided to make this agreement on November 1, 1919 and ended on June 29 of that year.
Consequences of World War I
The First World War that took place between 1914 and 1918, and after the conflict of the great powers, different consequences were manifested that were from various fields: economic, social, demographic, ideological and political.
The economic consequences: there were largely. The main country affected in this conflict was France who had to solve destruction with 30% of its fortune, in addition, Germany had 22%, likewise, 32% for Great Britain.
All countries that had a lot of losses had requested international loans from the United States, who gave them financial help to solve military expenses, later it would become the first world economic power;Those loans were of great quantity becoming an immense weight for their economy. To deal with the unbalanced situation that countries lived, they had to implement measures to end this critical period, so all the precious products increased, increasing the famine because the purchasing power was reduced in the purchase of food for consumption.
The defeated countries such as Germany, Hungarian Austro Empire, Turkey and Bulgaria, had to pay a lot.
DEMOGRAPHIC CONSEQUENCES: They are estimated that more than 10 million men had lost their lives during the war conflict, in which Germany lost 1.800.000 of his men between 14 and 20 years of age;France with 1.400.000 soldiers, Great Britain with 750.000 Deaths and Russia approximately 3 million deaths. However, the sum of the injured and mutilated had greatly increased those who had physical sequelae and psychologies. Due to this war, many children were orphaned, the large number of deaths were men, leading women to do work that were from the same.
Social transformations: because in large part men had died during the war, female overpopulation had to fulfill the same roles as men, later women became the main source of work. In addition, the injured and mutilated failed to adapt to civil life because they presented psychological problems after the great war therefore did not contribute in the development of the German country.
Peace treaties: Germany.
To finish the great war, some peace treaties had to be signed among them is the main one: the Versailles treaty.
For this, all the victors of this war conflict met, France who was in charge was the president: Clemenceau and Great Britain for Lloyd George, while the United States with Wilson. The president of the United States states a series of points with the aim of achieving peace among all the powers that were part of the war conflict. Wilson’s points or conditions are:
- Do not have alliances again in order to cause a war conflict.
- Free maritime circulation so that countries can market their products freely.
- The most important point of this treaty was the independence of territory taken by the victors, which consisted of the decolonization of many states in central and eastern Europe.
- In new European states and ancient empires they had to develop authoritarian policies.
Peace treatment: Austria
Austria in the territorial scope suffered more lost than Germany because it was with a small population, some territories of Austria (Galitzia) were delivered to Poland. Likewise, Bohemia and Moravia went to the state of Czechoslovakia. Bucovina would become part of Romania territory.
The peace treaties: Bulgaria (November 27, 1919)
Bulgaria after this treaty had to give up their territories to neighboring countries, that is, some Macedonia area was going to be from Yugoslavia, likewise, Dobbudja, it would be Romania.
The peace treaties: Hungary (June 4, 1929)
From the territories that the Austria-Hungarian empire told Hungarian, Croatia had emerged that would become Yugoslavia, Transylvania to Romania, and Slovakia to Czechoslovakia.
Peace treaties: Germany.
The peace treaty in Germany compared to the previous treated already mentioned, were more higher in the territorial, geographical, economic and political scope. After these peace treaties, the most affected country was Germany because being the main country promoting this conflict.
Treaty of Versailles
The peace agreement or also called Versailles Treaty (June 28, 1919 – January 21, 1920) was the most important treated, because it became an element of tension for Germany’s policy, Germans considered it as an opinionProvided to force, because Germany was the most important country of the central empires and the main responsible for this conflict was the same. At the time of signing this treaty there were different positions from the winning countries, including France who requested hard conditions, while the United States and Britain had flexible conditions.
The peace agreement or also called Versailles treaty, became an element of tension for Germany’s policy because it was considered an opinion provided to force. In the geographical aspect Germany was going to waste Alsace and Lorena, these would go to the French hands. In addition, I would have to deliver two cities (Eupen, Malmeldy) that were located to the border, so that they were from Belgium. The care of Prussia would also have to give up to Prussia.
In the territorial aspect Germany was going to lose Alsacia and Lorena, these would go to the French. In addition, I would have to deliver two cities (Eupen, Malmeldy) that were located to the border, so that they were from Belgium. The care of Prussia would also have to give up to Prussia.
In the military aspect Germany would be exposed to serious sanctions that according to the Department of Geography and History I.AND.S. Bachelor Sabuco. Albacete, because it was not allowed to have more than 100.000 men and his military service had been disabled, in addition, France had declared that the area of eastern Germany (Renania) would have to be demilitarized of the German army to facilitate access to them, however, later this area would be inhabited by theallies of France, so that in this way the security of the French people can be guaranteed. This same territory was divided into three zones, which were inhabited by them, the ambition of the French had increased because it wanted more German territory such as the Sarre area, however, the American and English people who were the main winners deniedroundly.
In the economic aspect Germany and the countries of the Triple Entente according to the Department of Geography and History I.AND.S. Bachelor Sabuco. Albacete, he had been required to pay compensation to all the winning countries, likewise, the German people had to pay 220 million to the triumphant countries among them to France who was the one who received half of the compensation, however, if GermanyThe French people were not paid on time, he accessed the German territory (Ruhr) to be able.
The Versailles treaty was considered by the Germans as a mandate, but not a treaty that motivates peace, because in it you can detail the impositions that the German people had to fulfill, while in German government it had been humiliated totally due to thepact that had to comply, however, these had not shown any objection. As a consequence of this treaty, the German people were filled with revenge and humiliation, which later became a main cause for World War II to develop.
The Versailles Treaty demanded that Germany distributing its economic and territorial assets with the objective of weakening its power, despite fulfilling all agreements of the winners Germany constituted by a great geopolitical power thus becoming one of the most causes one of the most causesimportant for the development of World War II.
With the background presented previously in the monographic work it can be concluded that the war event influenceTo the country with limited power, in the same way its economic resources were critical and scarce especially harming the life of German citizens, on the other hand, human loss influenced society because much of the man had left orphans, widowsand desolate family, among the aspects that were favorable especially in the female conglomerate were: allowed women to participate in new jobs that were not allowed to perform as a position in politics, and agriculture. Similarly, the survivors had severe traumas because they were with deplorable physical conditions because they were mutilated and with serious injuries. The cost of war was immense because it had to face external debts with the winning countries and also in the restructuring of its territory. The Versailles treaty modified the lifestyle of German citizens because they had to exercise new functions and at the same time work together to improve with the restructuring of the territory.
- Geography and History Department, I. B. (S, F de S, F de S, F). First World War. Retrieved on 16 of 2018, from Perseo Sabuco: http: // Perseo.Sabuco.com/history/the%20Primera%20Guerra%20mundial.PDF
- Perseus.Sabuco. (S, F de S, F de S, F). First World War . Retrieved on 03 of 2018, from Perseus.Sabuco.com: http: // Perseo.Sabuco.com/history/the%20Primera%20Guerra%20mundial.PDF