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World History period since 1918
On November 11, 1918 and with the firm by the German Empire of the Armisticio de Compiegnese, the First World War ends. Estimated figures indicate that refugees distributed throughout the European contine".
During the world history period called Deliguerras, which occurred between 1918 and 1939, Eglantyne Jebb, an outstanding British student and teacher, on April 15, 1919 and with the help of his sister Dorothy, found the organization "Save theChildren ”the one that was intended.
1924 Geneva on the Rights of the Child ". This statement was made up of five articles that gave more emphasis to adult duties towards children than in their rights.
On the other hand, on October 24, 1945, at a conference held in the city of San Francisco in the United States, the "United Nations Organization" was born, which was created with the intention of avoiding armed conflicts of worldwide size, promotingInternational peace and security. His top work is the "Universal Declaration of Human Rights" which was proclaimed by the General Assembly of the United Nations in Paris, made on December 10, 1948. The declaration establishes the fundamental human rights that must be protected throughout the world and is composed of a preamble and thirty articles, which collect civil, political, social, economic and cultural rights rights.
With the creation of the United Nations Organization, a look at the Defense of Human Rights is incorporated, including in them the rights of children, so on November 20, 1959, the member states are approved by Memberof the UN, the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, inspired by the 1924 Geneva Declaration. This new statement consists of ten principles, which recognize the child as a human being capable of developing with freedom and dignity.
Both statements, both the 1924 Geneva Declaration, as well as the Declaration of the Rights of the Child of 1959, served as the basis for the Convention on the Rights of the Child, treated approved by the United Nations General Assembly on November 20, of November 20,Year 1989.
One of the great and important differences between the old statements and the current convention, is the quality of binding and mandatory to comply with member countries belonging to the United Nations.
The current convention consists of 54 articles, separated into three parts being its guiding principles:
- "Principle of non -discrimination"
- "Principle of the best interest of the child"
- "Principle of the right to life survival and development"
- "Principle of participation and be heard".
In Chile and in accordance with Decree No. 830 of August 14, 1990, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, was declared Law of the Republic, during the mandate of President Patricio Aylwin Azócar. This president came to succeed Augusto Pinochet Ugarte, assuming the presidency on March 11, 1990, in the new Congress located in the city of Valparaíso. With this, 17 years of military dictatorship could be ended, and then started the process of transition of democracy, a process that was quite complex because the work had to be carried out in a system that maintained a great inheritance of the dictatorshipmilitary. Although the Concertación had obtained most of the votes in the parliamentary elections, due to the binominal system and the existence of designated senators, the expected reforms to the Constitution and the local administration of the communes could not be made, it was still in the hands of designated persons designatedby the military regime, those that would be replaced after the June 1992 elections.
However, other forms of political disposition that have somehow affected the exercise of the rights of children in our country, such as our fundamental letter, as well as some laws associated with theChildhood, those that were maintained and that are not yet completely adjusted to the indications provided by the Convention on the Rights of Chile that Chile signed.