Women’S Immigration In Spain

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Women’s immigration in Spain

“The migratory migrant movement made Spain has been and is a social reality. It is important to consider the social inclusion of migrant women in the reception society as a challenge to achieve, within the broader concept of social integration ”(Morcillo et al., 2017).

According to Ruiz (2004) immigrants constitute one of the groups with the highest risk of exclusion. The fact of not being able to participate in the whole of society, has as a direct consequence the inclusion of the category of "non -citizens". For Molero et al. (2001) The fact of not being able to integrate into the new society, implies the risk of social exclusion. Immigrant people do not have a series of rights of both political and labor, economic or social nature.

Martínez (2010) In his work he explains the double exclusion of immigrants, these people are beyond the reach of justice and also are outside the moral concerns of the rest of the population. The majority population, traces borders between people belonging to a community and the one that is excluded from this group. In Martínez’s work, we find the exclusion factors that affect immigrants, defined by Tezanos (2006): absence of family roots;Lack of housing;linguistic and cultural differences;Population prejudices;seasonal unemployment or employment;work precariousness;tendency to form isolated communities;educational difficulties;limitation of the right to vote;lack of representation;restricted accesses;Administrative and citizenship deficiencies.

In Spain, access to social rights that are universal is linked to municipal registration. The fact of having or not a legalized rental contract, occupying or not a home, becomes a criterion that delimits the border between those that will be entitled or not to basic health care and education to education. In this sense, the condition of being registered with immigrants entitles them to universal rights defended by the State. Not being able to register a registration, implies not having the social rights of the citizen (Lube, 2013)

Lube (2013) in his work explains that the precariousness of housing is one of the main social risk factors for immigrant groups, related to other elements that aggravate the situation of risk of exclusion such as job instability, undocumented, undocumementLack of access to basic social rights, xenophobia or racism, in the reception society.

For Camacho (2014), employment is one of social inclusion ways, but it is not the only way that guarantees a level of social integration. Although it remains a central element of social inclusion, since the absence of employment is one of the main factors that can lead to a situation of social exclusion and poverty. According to Martínez (2010) immigrants who work on the periphery of legality, without contract or labor rights, are being pushed into marginality. People who do not have their regulated administrative situation, in general, are obliged to accept those less desirable jobs. That is, those generally precarious activities, poorly considered socially and very affected by the evolution of the market.

According to Solé et al. (2013) Access to work, including irregular, notes that after the labor insertion of immigrant women relationships and support networks are created with people from different cultures, which contribute to social and family inclusion. Also, it accelerates the learning of the language of the new country, which has an impact on the establishment of new friendships and the expansion of social networks. According to the results of the study “having native friendship networks, it can be an important source of information on citizen rights and duties, necessary and complementary to the performance of professionals (social workers), organizations (social services) and social entities."

According to Herrero et al. (2012) "The process of social integration and its relationship with psychosocial well -being is particularly important among immigrants, especially for newcomers to the community". They point out that immigrants are a group particularly vulnerable to psychological stress due to adaptation to the new society. In the research they carry out there are low levels of vital satisfaction and subjective well -being moderate by factors such as linguistic affinity, educational level, residence time or administrative and labor situation. The importance of social support for social integration is verified. People with few or no social ties suffer from social isolation and harms their health. Syme (1989) cited in Herrero et al. He explains that people who are not involved in a community reduce their opportunities to meet satisfactorily in difficult situations.

In the study of Soriano (2006) there is also great importance in informal support networks. These networks can be family, friendships or acquaintances who are willing to help.

Exclusion is also related to social isolation and "lack of access to the necessary conditions to lead a dignified life or accumulation of problems that prevent people from their full participation in the life of the community" (Borroso et al., 2011). Laparra (2000) in Borrosso et al. "Exclusion is a social process of loss of integration that includes not only the lack of income and the departure of the labor market, but also a decrease in social participation and, therefore, a loss of social rights".

In the work of Rodríguez (2014) we find that migrant women can suffer a double invisibility in the country of destination, which aggravates social exclusion. They are women who have a dependency on the male family nucleus and have an inability to relate to the outside. This situation of invisibility hinders individual well -being and integration into the new society. On the other hand, "the decision to emigrate can have positive effects of empowerment that have strengthened their self – esteem, training and expectations, their desire to be free and independent women, in addition to improving the level of personal and family well -being".

As we can see, for immigrants, access to employment, housing, having social ties with the receiving society participating in this and having informal support networks, is essential for social integration into the territory. In addition, to have the social rights obtained through registration, and the administrative regularization of their status as a citizen.  

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