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Women in the workplace during the maternity period
The maternity period has, as well as breastfeedClear ones of this case are the unjustified dismissal, marginalization, undervaluation of their work or person. Unfortunately, actions like these are very often made by co -workers and employers.
For this reason, agreement 183 of the International Labor Organization (ILO) was created. This seeks, according to its article 1, is "the equality of all women members of the workforce and the health and safety of the mother and child". This agreement seeks that in the member countries the discrimination that a woman may suffer for her status as a woman at work is eliminated, in the same way she also seeks the protection of the child and not only that but also to give equal opportunities in the economic diversity ofa country.
This agreement raises the protection of women in relation to labor discrimination and one of the points to be discussed is the maternity leave, indicated in article 4, subsection 1 is presented according to the International Labor Organization.
Any woman to whom this agreement is applied will be entitled, by submitting a medical certificate or any other appropriate certificate, as determined by national legislation and practice, indicating the presumed date of delivery, to a license to a licenseMaternity of a duration of at least fourteen weeks
As can be seen, this article indicates the backs of their pregnancy situation that a woman must have so that her employer can approve the maternity leave. Similarly, this article adapts to the laws of each of the member countries to the ILO. This period can be modified thanks to recommendation 191, also called in the preamble “The recommendation on motherhood protection, 2000.’
Now, the objective on maternity license is the protection of the mother and the child, so there is a pause to the work of the 14 -week women, after the 18 -week recommendation. This pause is given to avoid any about the effort that the woman can make, or some accident in the work zone that is dangerous for her and for the child. In addition, it is added in subsection 4 of the same article, that “the maternity license will include a period of six weeks of compulsory license after childbirth." . This period also adapts to the existing labor laws in each member country and as mentioned above in order to protect. Also, the woman has the right to return to her work once the period of her license is finished, with the same conditions prior to her withdrawal (salary, schedule, rights and prohibitions).
It is in mind that a case of labor discrimination towards women is the unjustified dismissal being pregnant, and as indicated in article 8 in which “the employer who dismisses a woman who is pregnant (…) or after having reintegrated himself is indicatedto work during a period that must be determined in national legislation, except for reasons that are not related to pregnancy.”(International Labor Organization, 2000, P. 4). It should be clarified that in case of dismissal during these periods, the employer is obliged to demonstrate that dismissal has no relationship with pregnancy and everything related to this.
On the other hand, there is the breastfeeding preiod, which is a period of time where the mother woman can breastfeed her child, in order to have this period the mother is obliged to present the appropriate check and present it to the employerIn order to make reductions effective, another factor to be treated is that the breastfeeding period is variable, it can last a few months or up to a year. And, as an extra point, the discounted hours must be registered as worked and cannot be withdrawn from the mother’s salary.
In the case of Costa Rica, labor legislation dictates how much these schedule reductions will be, as shown in article 97 of the Labor Code (1943):
Every mother in breastfeeding can dispose of places where she works from a fifteen minutes interval every three hours or, if you prefer, half an hour twice a day during her work, in order to breastfeed her son.
Thanks to these regulations, labor discrimination suffered by women is reduced due to their pregnancy status. And not only is it also a good care in the health and protection of women in the face of possible risks that women can have in the work environment, the child’s safety is also maintained, this is achieved with the protections towards the mother. These laws are reflected in the work reality in the country, since in each organization the rules placed by the laws are complied with. And this generates a work environment where social justice has a strong influence on the way of acting of each individual in these situations.
Laws that promote women’s equality in the workplace
Gender stereotypes have existed, thoughts on the roles of men and women in society, where there are unequal mechanisms that define who can work, who can possess rights in the world and even ways to expose themselves to everyday life, all these actionsLittle by little they were adding and in times before the 1990s, it seemed something to be taken to do, but no one analyzed that in addition to denigrating the woman, these actions were impacting the life of the female in thesocial and economic scope, giving them to see how weak, little trained and that were one step less than men. However, through the passage of time, people have begun to develop new more humanistic thoughts, they have been looking for the idea of gradually developing equality in both genres, since the profile according to sex, activities or workTo be fulfilled, they were established, but, this fight was creating as its purpose new laws that allowed women to hope that they could have the same opportunities and rights to work.
In Costa Rica, within the workplace it was very commonfinancial support given to them, sought ways to create conditions, laws and policies that could help women overcome, mainly in the economic aspect.
It is possible to observe this great triumph in the 1990s, where gender equality and the rights of the ladies are promoted through various institutions, which had always been violated, the main actions that the Government managed to accept are the following:
INAMU CREATION LAW
His birth arose in 1976 with Law number 7801, where a national entity that would achieve the development of both women and their family, their objective in Costa Rican society was announced was to investigate cases where there was gender violence to give solutionsand advice with emissions of guidelines of the Government Council where it would benefit it to promote support from women at a social and economic level through four essential laws, so that equality would be given, protect the rights and opportunities for women, finally the income of the income offemale in different areas.
Women’s Attention Law in Poverty Conditions
In 1998, in Costa Rica there was a lot of poverty in rural areas, and the most affected population was the female. Therefore, its objective was to seek as counteract poverty, with aspects such as training to be able to opt for a technician from the National Learning Institute that would allow them to be able to insert themselves into the labor market through a SME or another company as a worker, they also sought that the capacitiesLabor of women were of quality that strengthened their inclusion in the Costa Rican economy.
Thanks to this law, the part -time also expands, leveling education so that there was not much difference in the knowledge between both sexes and finally labor protection to those who had great disadvantage with others.
However, although this law would be created to promote better equality in the country’s economic spaces, the woman with all these advantages had not yet managedThe woman, who works more efficient and that the positions of charges for politics or public areas could only have the men. And another factor that still affected to eradicate poverty was salary inequalities, this factor not only demonstrates, gender differences but that it shows that it is not neutral when salaries are made because a man and a woman, who meet the same time, same days and obligations only demonstrates the wrong thinking that the man is superior to the woman.
Women’s Social Equality Promotion Law
This law was created in the 1990s, guided with the foundations of the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of discrimination against women, well known to its acronym “CEDAW”, which is a convention signed in a letter by different nationsInternational that promotes gender equality, and giving suggestions for better treatment. Costa Rica implements it in health areas, schools. Mainly in educational areas, it implemented that there were no subjects for a specific sex, seeking methods and materials that gave an equal education as it is today, since years ago only man was the one who could receive subjects related to history andCulture, and women subjects that will foster children and maintenance at home.
The role of women in companies
The role of women to be incorporated into the workplace has been very rewarding and above all of great importance since it has managed to develop their skills and has demonstrated skills thanks to the positive attitude, responsibility and perseverance to reach their purposes in thelabor sphere;And thanks to this she has contributed to the development of many companies.
At present there are many women who are incorporated into the labor market, in different positions, even in which in ancient times it was believed that it was work that only corresponded to men, but that over time it has been deterioratingthat selfish thought that brings with it acts of discrimination. However, there are still many women who dedicate themselves only to domestic tasks, such as the care of their children and perform the home chores.
In Costa Rica, the unemployment situation has affected many women, since studies conducted by universities and other entities, have resulted in the highest percentage corresponding to unemployment belongs to the female gender and according to surveys, many of these womenThey would like to achieve an opportunity to join a work with remuneration, but since they have not been able to obtain it, they have had to carry out their families in other ways, such as undertaking.
The Mixed Social Assistance Institute in Costa Rica is responsible for helpbusiness and exercise trade legally;Many decide to open a bakery, bookstore, store, among others;In this way they manage to subsist them and their families. Despite this great help they give to many women in different areas of the country, there are negative aspects and one of them is that they are difficult for them, being small and new companies, they have little credit availability and in the absence of such opportunity on many occasions that there is no other option than to close the business due to the lack of stability.
On the other hand, due to taxes and all the requirements to be able to exercise trade in the country, many people are difficult to form a company, so these situations bring negative consequences and one of them is what is whatThe informal economy is developed and according to surveys and studies carried out by different institutions, most of the informal economy in the country is being led by women, which, following unemployment and the cost of forming a company due to lack of resources andThe aforementioned situations have no choice but to go to the streets to sell different products on many occasions produced by themselves and in the absence of family support they go to work with their children.
The participation of women in companies is increasingly frequent and they have been increasingacademically in various areas but predominate in health areas such as obstetrics, nutrition, speech therapy, occupational therapy, among others, also in social science careers such as social work and psychology as well as in educational careers.
It is considered that the male gender is leading engineering careers especially electronic engineering, but it shouldProfessions regardless of the genre that is most concentrated in this career, women are also studying astronomy, law, journalism, architecture and civil engineering.
In the country there are women who dedicate themselves to being buse drivers, taxis, there are also women who are a traffic officer, at first they might see an obstacle because they are women, but they were given the opportunity regardless of their gender.
Impact of women in the workplace
The impact left by female movements has generated revolutionary changes in society. A clear example of this are the openings of new jobs for women who came to give solution to the disagreement that women had for several decades for their merely reproductive work or their condition as a housewife condition.
These changes can be appreciated with the improvements of jobs that women have had, since it is no mystery that the female population was practically all its existence to care for home and family. And it is from the nineteenth century where they begin to enter the labor market through factories such as workers, before that in the work in which they were integrated they were linked to the stereotypes of women (serving others or the care of careothers).
For this reason, it is considered that the entry of women to the workplace was achieved with the revolutions of that century. Although all the changes made were gradually expanding to cover the entire female population and suffered some setbacks from the society of that time that refused to the changes. As is the case of the great salary gap that existed between men and women, which, also said salary gap has been considerably decreased, but that unfortunately there are still cases of said gap.