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Woman and Nation: Analysis of their relationship in works of Ecuadorian literature
The following essay is based on two Ecuadorian works published in the 19th century, the emancipated by Miguel Rofrio and Dolores Twenty -Galindo de Juan León Mera. For the respective analysis, two aspects were taken into account: the role of Ecuadorian women and her relationship with the construction of the homeland. Before starting with the study, some biographical data of the authors will be briefly explained.
Miguel Riofrio, Lojano by birth, writer, poet, journalist and follower of liberalism in Ecuador. According to the Gallery of Illustrious Men of Loja, he founded several progressive newspapers in the country, in addition literary criticism considers it as:
"The first Ecuadorian realistic of social tendency, since his novels ‘The Emancipada’ and ‘María’, contains paintings of a deep realistic sense in which the colonial drama, the gallant life of beautiful owners and gentle men and the tragedy is reproduced of the neighboring race ”(Loja for all).
The emancipated, a work published in the year of 1863, introduces us to Rosaura, a young girl who after the death of her mother, is locked by her father, forcing her to marry a man older than her. The day of her wedding the girl escapes from her hometown, moving to Zamora, a land that saw her start a new life, but also die. Miguel Donoso Pareja, states that this novel represents a conjunctural value in our literature, representing a change in narrative and its content. This is verified by understanding that Riofrio does not focus solely on Romanticism, a genre used frequently in those years, but is committed to some dyes of realism.
It must be taken into account that this novel is contextualized in the 19th century, when Ecuador was at a critical moment, since liberalism and conservatism fought for the power of the recent nation. Although it seems that Rofrio presents one more work, behind her there are many hidden intentions, because Rosaura is an allegory of the nation, the future of the country is projected, representing conservatism as Don Pedro and liberalism as the determination of the protagonist to get out of town. The problem lies in any path that she chooses will lead to destruction, therefore, it is understood that the country should look for another option. In a way it is a reflection that the author makes before the political situation of the State, using a woman to represent him, but not everything focuses on the prosperous future of Ecuador, but there is also a hidden message for the women of that time.
When describing the "painful" life of Rosaura out of the protection of her husband, the denial of Catholicism, the "bad" education given by her mother, the freedom to make decisions ceasing to be considered as a passive being in society, and her Death, it is a way of suggesting women, locking them in that unable woman bubble, a woman who needs a man to live. When describing a different femininity for the traditional of that time, Rosaura is considered a bad example for other women, it ceases to be worthy for her father, for her husband and especially for Church: “Man has been created for glory of God and the woman for glory and comfort of man (…) Rosaura’s crime should be severely punished, for vindict of society and living example of all daughters ”(Riofrío, pp. 57). The alleged crime of the newly married is considered a sin, because due to her irresponsible acts and heretics, she would not be able to raise her offspring, she would take the children of the country on a bad way, which is not suited to conservatives.
Another point to take into account is how the woman continues with that mission, imposed, of procreation. The stereotype of the homemade, fearful of God, obedient to her father and husband, is still in force in this story, although the protagonist breaks this path is not entirely free, since the criticisms of society represented in Eduardo, they persecute her, even His death could be considered as a "divine" punishment for escaping his tasks. Therefore, the women who read this novel could fall on this alleged path of righteousness to know Rosaura’s fate, embeding in them the fear of freedom, depriving them of a different perspective, beyond home and the church.
On the other hand, we have Juan León Mera, recognized Ecuadorian writing, creator of multiple works that continue to study and read today. The embedding of literary criticism in the country is granted. "He founded the Ecuadorian Academy and encouraged Criollista literary consciousness" (Biography and Lives)). Going down as an illustrious man of the country.
Among the various works that the Ambateño publishes, we find a text dedicated to the Ecuadorian poet Dolores twenty -2 different, since the name of the deceased is used to criticize it, noticing that more of discrimination is about an acceptance. Although he tries to recognize her as a writer, her arguments demonstrate otherwise, because the only thing that highlights is the lack of education and the limitation of readings of her:
“On the occasion of this poetry it has been said that Mrs. Twenty -Sile was Safo’s Eumula. We believe that there is exaggeration in such a concept, because, although they are similar in the vehemence of passion, the lover of the unfaithful Faón knew the art of highlighting all the fire of the soul in its verses, and our poet barely makes it translude in theirs "
It is notorious as praise to pains become a criticism, of anything but literary, losing objectivity and overlapping morals.
León Mera disguises her speech as a better education for women, not as a right, or thinking about it at the same level of man, but as a duty, an obligation, because the future of the children of the country depends on it. As in the emancipated, the stereotype of a lady dedicated to the home, the care of the children, of her husband, and fearful of God is present, and fearful of God. Using the poet’s memory to control women’s society under her macho thoughts and the alleged national progress: “That’s why we have said a thousand times and we will repeat it another thousand, what else would we want to see a viper within a young woman, not In his hands a corrupt book ". In other words, the little that was known from the life of Dolores is used, to bottling women in the usual passivity.
Returning to the poet, Juan León Mera not only concentrates on his life, but also in his death by victimizing her, because he neglects suicide as a decision, he takes it as the result of a tireless persecution of a religious, describing Dolores as a woman full of suffering, abandoned by her husband, lonely, and who needs the protection and company of a man. They show her as someone not resilient, unable to control her life. To summarize, I do not know it gives their deserved value to their works, it is only responsible for judging it and affirming that women have to be educated, but not at the level of men, and above all their place will always be the house:
“As you can see, we do not deny the need for women to learn those things of their sex and good for their condition; without them his education would be vicious for another respect. There is no reason to think about giving them a teaching of all men ".
The relationship of females with the nation is only to be raised to be housewives, please your husband, and bring children to life to continue with that vicious circle of the man commands and the woman bends down her head.
In these texts, an advance is already visible in terms of women’s passivity, she is no longer the same house, romantic and dedicated, but she still keeps her behind the shadow of her father and husband. The works imply that the woman needs to be dominated, educated to the taste of the man, to be part of the society she needs to marry, she requires male recognition to feel performed. Although you can also notice how social hierarchy commands, as both women belong to wealthy families, leaving aside those belonging to the lowest strata. Was he opened or at least considered writing about them if their origin were different? And even if they would have the same end? Or would your stories have been published? These are questions whose answers open multiple debates.