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War on drugs between Mexico and the US
The authorities in Mexico have been fighting a bloody war against the drug trafficking and the different organizations that exercise it. Since 2006, the year in which President Felipe Calderón launched the intensive anti -narcotics campaign, drug trafficking posters have contributed to the murder of more than one hundred thousand people, including politicians, students, and journalists.
In the last decade, the United States Government (USA) has determined more than two billion dollars, in the process of planning and financing support for the fight against the anti -narcotics of Mexico, but the main objective or approach of the North American countryIt has been to stagnate the flow of drugs to the US and reinforce the application of the American law on them. This is why movements gradually have been made in the US novel towards the legalization and decriminalization of marijuana, one of the main products involved in this war against drugs.
Drug trafficking posters in Mexico are in constant flow. Over the years, the posters have grown, alliances have been formed, formed and fought between them. According to a 2016 DEA report, called “Natioanl Drug Threat Assessment” the posters that have the greatest negative impact on the US are: Sinaloa, New Generation Jalisco, Juárez, Gulfo, Los Zetas and Beltrán-Lawva.
In Mexico, drug trafficking posters have used huge profits, obtained by drugs, to neutralize the opposition the government, paying judges, police, politicians and other public sector officials. For decades, during the government of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), drug traffickers abused Mexico entrenched policy to create a corruption network that guarantees distribution rights, access to the market and even the official protection of the government for the government fordrug traffickers in exchange for lucrative bribes.
The uninterrupted mandate of the PRI finalOrganized crime ”, according to a 2017 Congress Research Service Report. "The violence of drug traffickers directed against the government seems to be an attempt to restore impunity, while violence between posters arves to be an attempt to restore dominance over specific drug trafficking places," says the report also.
At an international level, Mexico’s posters began to take a much more important role in the world of drug trafficking ending the eighties, after the US agencies successfully broke the Caribbean networks used by Colombia’s posters for smugglingof cocaine. The Mexican bands finally went from being messengers of Colombian drug traffickers, to being wholesalers of the business.
At the same time, the US government, despite carrying a war against narcotics and other efforts against drug trafficking, has progressed in terms of reducing the demand for illegal drugs. A 2014 Rand Corporation study prepared for the US presidency discovered that Americans spent more or less $ 109 billion in 2010 on illicit drugs, around the Mass amount they spent in 2000.
President Felipe Calderón declared the war towards drug traffickers shortly after assuming his position in 2006. In the course of its presidential period, which lasted six years, I deploy enough military to supplement and in some cases replace local police forces, since in Mexico the police work under a federal system and it is not the same in the entire nation. Under the leadership of Calderón, with the help of the US, he was captured twenty -five of the thirty -seven leaders of the most wanted drug trafficking in Mexico in Mexico.
Although the repression against the leaders of the posters had its inconveniences. The government of the subsequent president of Mexico, Enrique Peña Nieto, said that the so -called “Capo strategy” of Calderón shiping the organizations, and generated the creation of seventy -eight new and smaller gangs of drug traffickers. The succession battles and the rivalries of territory between different posters intensified and the violence extended. Drug traffickers and criminal organizations went more and more to kidnapping and extortion, as a method of violence to complement their income. Near a hundred mayor and former public officials were killed, along with several municipal leaders, in the decade between 2006 and 2016 when the different posters competed for political power, according to the New York Times.
The Government registered more than one hundred thousand homicides during the government of Felipe Calderón. Because the official statistics presented by the Government of Mexico do not indicate drug -related deaths, measure the price of war in this country against narcotics has been a challenge. The report on drug -related violence in 2017, justice in Mexico, estimates that homicides in the style of organized crime represent more or less half of the total homicides in a given year, this depending on the sources used to calculateThese figures.
Peña Nieto, who assumed the position in 2012, said he would focus more on reducing violence against civilians and companies and less to eliminate cartels leaders. Despite these ambitions, Peña Nieto has trusted [PDF] in the Mexican army in combination with the Federal Police to address violence using the strategy ‘essentially the same operational’ as Calderón, wrote vanda felbab-brown, main researcher of BrookingsInstitution in a 2014 report. After reaching a maximum of twenty -seven thousand deaths in 2011, homicides decreased in the first years of the presidency of Pena Nieto. But in 2016 there was a rebound: the government reported almost twenty -three thousand deaths, a 22.8 percent more than the previous year. Some experts have attributed this, in part, to the recapture in January 2016 of Guzmán and the territorial struggles that have taken place in their absence.
Through the Mérida initiative, the US has pledged to provide an approximate sum of $ 2.5 billion to finance and provide technical assistance and intelligence for more than ten years to increase the institutional capacity of the Central American country to address drug trafficking. Meanwhile, the US has increased security on its side of the border, increasing the number of security agents, since in 20014 there were eleven thousand and in 2016 it increased to more than seventeen thousand.
US President Donald J. Trump put as pillars of his presidential campaign the control of immigration and border security. He also signed executive orders that ask for the construction of a border wall between the two countries and increased personnel in the border patrol. It is feared that due to tension between the US and Mexico, during the presidency of Trump, cooperation in security policies can be affected, because the only thing that would be to be seen is that so much and in which US areas will be willing to work with Mexico.