Tourism Epistemology: Multidisiplinary Study

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Tourism epistemology: multidisiplinary study


At present, the training of knowledge in tourism is linked to a complete epistemological reflection, which is analyzed from different fields of study, but the most mentioned are: science and philosophy. Science raises results with the possibility of being evaluated and philosophy together with this can affirm them. All this interpreting from a point of view that helps its understanding in modern society. Next, the information of why epistemology in tourism will be expanded cannot have a specific definition, in addition an approach to the construction of scientific knowledge, the philosophical function and in the other topics that entails everything with the relationship on the relationship on thewhich is the epistemology of tourism.


The objective of epistemology in tourism is not to repeat the same methodological procedures or typical conventional responses when the question is asked: what is tourism?.

Tourism is a social phenomenon, this set with being multidimensional. Starting from this point, you can see its different approaches in various fields of study of all social sciences at the international level. For example, sociology, is responsible for investigating the relationships that arise between visitors and visited. The authors Milton Friedman or Joffre Dumazedier are the most mentioned authors in the reflection of tourism when related to sociology. Something very curious is that from this respective point of view they made a combination with the economy for the social restructuring that the world suffered after World War II, with its constant changes in the preferences and tastes of tourists.

It also happens with geography, which studies the spatial dimension of tourism, relating the human group that puts it into practice as of service providers to said collective. Not to mention the other fields that are little valued, such as historiography, and, of course, anthropology, all those fields of studies that give conclusions that cannot aspire to be of general application, which can affirm the contributions of Karl Popper(1998) which indicates the little capacity to demonstrate solid foundations in any specific field of study applied to tourism, implying that it is a study in general.

Today tourism can be focused from different types of view, some people identify it by form of culture. In the mid -twentieth century, teachers specialized in tourism Walter Hunziker and Kurt Krapf (1942) in their studies argued that tourism is actually a sociology of culture. This is based because by that time most tourists towards tourism to visit ruins of antiques and monuments and not as now that most prefer sun and beach tourism or adventure tourism. Implying that tourism is a consumer activity that originated as a replica of culture itself. Both specialists from the tourist field have the thought that tourism is a hybrid discipline of economics and sociology, but closer to sociology than to the economy. On the other hand, taking the point of view to the economy, it is affirmed that tourism is an indispensable way of consumption, giving as extra growth projections, demand studies, projections at the macro level, among others, all this with the aim of knowing theTourist demands.

Having as reference the aforementioned, although there are a lot of specialized fields in the study of tourism because there is an extensive multitude of methodologies available available to researchers, the same cannot be said of epistemology. Epistemology is known as the theory of knowledge, but it has not been defined as a science, or as a philosophy in its entirety. Thus, it can be interpreted that the knowledge of tourism is constructed with a mix of epistemology related to the economy, sociology or anthropology, among others, this implies that the epistemology applied to tourism prolongs the necessary use of all sciences to theOnce, because an application of epistemology to tourism can always be made from various points and issues, since tourism is a very varied and so extensive field of study to be able to define it in a single approach.

According to Zivadin Jovicic: “Tourism is a unique phenomenon and none of its components can be studied in isolation, since in order to study any aspect of the phenomenon it is essential to know its essence, its deep nature, because, otherwise, theRisk of presenting it from a unilateral or denatured angle (falling into economicism, geography, sociologism, etc.) ".


In short, apart from all the fields of studies mentioned, the research and realization of tourism knowledge needs a specific disposition group: interpretive, critical, reflective and formative for modern society. It is not about satisfying the unknown of what explanation could be given to tourist facts or phenomena, but try to reach the levels of understanding and interpretation that are more precise when referring to tourism. An epistemological perspective can give a new vision to tourism if this is has a critical-reflective relationship, to understand each of the phenomena that give tourism the extensive recognition that it currently has.

To conclude, the epistemology of tourism must be understood and considered as multidisciplinary, to understand it in all the sciences that form it and not as in isolated studies. 

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