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TIME LINE ON THE HISTORY OF DISABILITY
This work is intended to see the different processes of the history of people with disabilities, as they have been treated, as they have been able to help and with everything we are knowing, we hope that we will become aware of this situation, which allows us to respectAs we would like them to respect us taking into account that they can perform activities that we ourselves do, being that it was previously believed that the person with disabilities could not contribute anything to society, however they can contribute more than one imagines.
The history of disability begins from ignorance, abuse, exclusion, with infrahuman behaviors in front of this population through the times, in: in:
The ancient Greeks in Esparta exterminated babies with disabilities, infanticides were committed, they lasted many centuries, threw them into these people from the mountain, exterminated them, so they justified that they were killed by deformed, sickly, weak children not byanger but by principles of reasoning thus separating the defective of the healthy according to them. They also thought it was the punishment of the gods, they believed that they brought diabolical messages.
In some ancient societies people with disabilities had a cruel destiny that was death, others were expelled from their people or delivered in sacrifice or abandoned in the jungle or deserts believing that it was a mark of sin, they pointed out that people with disabilities do notThey are necessary because they do not contribute to society. Also in Rome with the law of the twelve tables allowed the father to deprive his son with disabilities immediately after his birth. It was also common to sell to his disabled son as a slave or for begging. In pre -Columbian America they abandoned people with disabilities to their fate.
At the end of this age, Christianity wanted to give attention, help people with disabilities, such as Constantine that created an institution where roof, food and spiritual help was provided. Although the Maya valued the elderly and people with disabilities giving respect to them, and for the Nordics they were great gods which allowed them to stay alive.
With the arrival of Christianity, the sale of children and infanticide and increases sensitivity towards people with disabilities is prohibited.
In this period it was wanted to exalt values and Christianity, however it was characterized by marginalizing people with disabilities believing that it was a punishment, others believed that these people were closer to God who suffered purgatory on earth and not afterwards afterof death. The majority of the explanations that were given were that they were punished and sent by a jealous and vindictive God considered the child as a threat to the community, which called repentance. So the information was manipulated indicating that if they committed sin their punishment was to have a child with disabilities. In these times the Inquisition arises whose objective was to alleviate the society of people with physical and intellectual disabilities since they were considered children of sin and demon, more animals than humans. Due to the numerrable wars or epidemics that characterized this era the number of people with disabilities increase.
The Catholic Church behaved contradictoryly, on the one hand condemned, eliminated heretics with disabilities and on the other hand gave asylum and created hospitals.
At that time there was no state disposition for people with disabilities, so they lived and worked in their communities with the support of their family and friends, they were also attended by monks and nuns providing comfort, food, clothing and others.
Over the years, hospitals were created, specialized institutions for leprosy, blindness and physical disability that also helped the elderly and disabled sick people.
The culture of tolerance and cooperation emerged allowing to let people with disabilities live since they managed to survive in a time where it was condemned.
On the other handproof of a supernatural power in the earth where the killings to people with disabilities were prohibited.
At the beginning of this age there was a change in attitude in relation to people with disabilities recognizing that they have responsibility with this population. At this time medicine and prostheses develop. The influence of the Church with reform decreases and many beneficial institutions are closed. Likewise in Spain, the first hospital is created that helps young soldiers injured, curturalBlind, deaf children and with mental retardation collecting them from the streets so that they can access adequate environments. With all this, the study of the causes of disability and society acquires more awareness begins.
However, despite all the positive changes that were to give to people with disabilities there were still people who considered them upset people who were admitted to orphanages or in asylums without any special care. The advances in the auspices, orphanages or asylum caused a worsening of the quality of life of its inhabitants since they ended up being held in punishment cells.
Also after these studies and wanting to help these people with disabilities arise the first manual alphabet for deaf which facilitates communication with the deaf.
In this age, professional rehabilitation arises with greater emphasis on the world since the rulers in times of war see the survivors of these cruel battles with different physical and mental sequelae that worries governments a lot for that reason seek to solve theseproblems that afflict the people.
In 1919 the International Labor Organization (ILO) that has had a decisive role in the promulgation of government laws and norms that seek to protect the rights of people with disabilities generating professional rehabilitation programs
In 1955 the ILO dialogue on the rehabilitation and use of the invalids raises the need to make available to people with disabilities in the means of adaptation and professional readaptation independent of their origin, nature and age.
Despite all this in the mid -twentieth century, it was still believed that people with disabilities had limitations and need more protection, society continued with their attitudes of rejection and repulsion towards people with disabilities abandoning their children and continued with amputations for thebegging.
In the nineteenth century the first school for the blind opens, in 1878 the Braile method was recognized in Paris as a universal teaching system and for deaf and dumb promoting communication with the hands.
After all these positive changes that were giving in the course of time for the benefit of disabled people there was still the fear of this population, it is convenient to underline the attitude of the Catholic Church, which through Pope Francis that in one of his walksHe saw a man in a wheelchair and approaching him put his hand on his head indicating that he was exorcising him, this happened in 2013.
In 1982, the National Special Education Plan and the Social Integration Law of the Disabled and in 1996 the UN approved the uniform norms on equal opportunities for people with disabilities,.
There is currently a struggle to overcome marginalization, stigmatization, effort and enhance common aspects and minimize differences. This is why it is intended to guarantee the equity of opportunities throughout the world, participate in all aspects of life to the fullest of their abilities and desires, including people with disabilities in everyday activities and encourage them to have roles similar to those of theircompanions so that they can develop their potential and have equity of opportunities. We also remember that in Bolivia the Political Constitution of the State and Educational Law 070 intends to give attention to people with disabilities through, laws that protect, inclusive schools that benefit and give opportunity in the development of their life.
In summary, we can indicate that throughout history people with disabilities lived in marginalization, abuse, discrimination, extermination and others, they are not considered as subjects with equal rights that the rest of the people, these features of the past to a lastWithin society, so we must fight for the equity of opportunities of people with disabilities, that is, rejecting these people means rejecting ourselves because we could have been in their place is for that and for many other reasons that we must be respectfulAnd tolerant since disability is not a disease is a human condition.