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Threat of machines as a replacement for humans in the labor field
Fear is not new but it seems more real than ever. Will robots leave humans without employment or become their help? Who are the most affected? How to enlist better for the future labor market that is getting closer and closer?
No one still has the clear answers to these questions, but what is known is that in a matter of a few years we will attend a deep transformation of the production of goods and services that will fully impact workers and economies throughout the land.
In ancient times the horses were our means of transport until motor vehicles were invented, there we see one of the first living beings replaced by technology. The man is not improper to this problem, a work previously known was that of the porteros now in recent decades this trade has disappeared being replaced by social networks. It will really be that the machines replace humans in automated works in the first world countries, but not in creative works that is why in the following paragraphs we will cover how the machines have removed jobs to a sector, but has given opportunities toother groups, emerging new works for the development of technology in history.
Andrés Faiña, a robotics researcher at the University of Copenhagen in the International Congress in artificial intelligence applications, carried out by the National University, that “we must still advance in guaranteeing that robots are able to perform their functions reliably”.
Although robots and artificial intelligence have been introduced in areas such as finance, health and automation of various industrial processes, specialists agree that there is still much to model our reality well.
This year, UNESCO published a document entitled: ‘Artificial Intelligence, Promises and Threats’. There, an apart from the book is dedicated to ethical troubles that lead to artificial intelligence and its application in robots.
"With artificial intelligence not only most of the dimensions of intelligence- perhaps humor- are subject to analysis and rational reconstructions with computers, but also the machines exceed our cognitive faculties in most lands, whatwhich awakens fears of ethical risks, ”says the study.
These risks, according to UNESCO, are three orders: “The shortage of work, which would be executed by machines instead of human beings;the consequences for the autonomy of the individual, especially for his freedom and his security;And overcoming the human race, which would be replaced by increasingly intelligent machines ”.
However, the report raises a great question: will the most intelligent machines become more than human beings? No, says the document and asserts that it is a myth fed by science fiction.
As for the work and labor that could replace the machines, Ricardo Ramírez, leader of the Robotic Platform Research Group of the National University, explains that the human being has a lot of skills and capacities than the technology of the technology of the technology of the technology of theRobots can’t yet imitate.
According to Francisco Díaz-Andreu (2019), he tells us the following:
Let’s be realistic, robotization (or digitalization as it is also called) will eliminate jobs. In this case there are no exceptional circumstances required by law, but in other cases they will be given. In addition, the destruction of employment will be given not only and mainly due to layoff.
Díaz shows us what in a couple of decades will be a harsh reality for workers, automation has reached the point of moving human workforce. The case with the greatest number of dismissals in China around 1500 workers were replaced by machines by the Changying Precision Technology company, this entails that it will be more difficult to get a job and that inequality will increase due to automation.
According to Deloitte (2015), a recent study published by The Guardian on the opportunities that technology has given tells us:
"If there are more machines, there will be more programmers and more engineers, but they have also detected an increase in jobs in other sectors, such as creative, leisure or in it".
In these lines evidence that new branches of work have emerged in the field of creativity, this shows us that the machines are not suitable to be able to perform operations where they are demanded superior cognitive effort by which it is human being is able to easily perform them.
On Thursday, May 31, during the 2018 edition “El Aleph. Festival of Art and Science ”was presented, at the University Museum of Contemporary Art (MUAC), the New Creativity Meeting where Carlos Gershenson presented the paper intelligence: past, present and future reviewing some arguments before this concern.
Gershenson, responsible for the Computational Intelligence and Mathematical Modeling program of the Complexity Sciences Center (C3) and researcher at the Institute of Research in Applied Mathematics and Systems of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, began its presentation by reviewing the meaning of the term artificial intelligence (artificial intelligence (AI), coined in 1956 by John McCarthy and other contemporary scientists, "to start studying how human logic can be imitated on computers".
Artificial intelligence was required by McCarthy as science and engineering to invent intelligent machines, especially intelligent computing programs. For Gershenson, however, it is important to begin by defining how much human behavior is "intelligent" and how much non -human behavior could be considered so.
On the possibility that the machines can replace the human being, Gershenson, a doctor of design and control of self-organizing systems by the Vrije Universite Brussel, said that, despite the fact that the machines have defeated man in different disciplines for a long timeTime, for example in chess, we are far from a machine to replace a human.
One of the first arguments to this state. This means that for the human being to be replaced, an infinity of machines with different skills would be needed, and not only one.
In addition, the functions performed by the machines are complementary to those made by human beings, so it is not appropriateGeneral we can coexist, ”he explained.
The researcher pointed out that another limiting to the machines could replace the human being when they become receiving a human mind – as Johnny Depp does in the Transcendence film – is that "we know very little about the brain", which rules out the possibility of "Download a mind about something that is not a (human) body "reducing the chances of a machine has an" mind "that allows you to think how the human does.
Stuart Armstrong, a futurologist at the University of Oxford (2017), estimates that:
Uncertainties about the development of artificial intelligence are extreme. The problem is that it is extremely difficult to program objectives compatible with dignity or even with the survival of humanity. Almost all human values should be programmed perfectly on the computer to prevent artificial intelligence from interpreting ‘to eradicate the disease’ such as’ killing everyone ‘or’ keeping humans healthy and saved and happy ‘how’ burying everythingThe world in a bunker with heroin.
Gershenson stressed that in the current context trust decision making on mobile devices led by algorithms impacts society in two ways: on the one hand, it is believed that better decisions are made due to the ability of machines to process large amounts ofdata, but on the other, diversity is reduced in decisions taken. In addition, other elements such as the culture and the environment in which a person develops also establish important differences with machines.
Artificial intelligence is a complex matter because beyond whether a machine can replace a human, a situation that has already been seen at least in certain industries, artificial intelligence would imply the use of devices (machines) capable of perceiving itsenvironment and carry out actions based on decisions based on cognitive processes similar to those developed by the human being.
During his presentation, the self-organizing systems specialist also contemplated the ethical perspective where, for example, if a machine charges the relevance of a human, there could be the possibility that they also demand “rights”.
José Negrete Martínez, considered a precursor of AI in Mexico, assured that when trying to build artificial systems that imitated the human mind it would be possible to understand how it works.
In this regard, Gershenson (2017) considered that:
"Artificial intelligence not only serves to build, but also to try to understand ourselves".
In conclusion, although the machines have replaced us in automated works where they are repetitively carried out to be able to improve their productivity of the company, but not in creative works, thousands of years will pass when the machines can perform creative operations therefore there must be adaptedTo this technological boom through the development of our superior cognitive abilities (creativity, imagination, decision making, etc.) And this at the same time will achieve it through the continuous study to be on par with technology, since if we do not, we will be replaced by machines in the works where automated processes are carried out without greater cognitive effort. In the end the machines that we create will increase our abilities, that is, in a long period we will be developing a symbiosis between machine and man.