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Thermodynamics and its origin
It is the branch of physics that is responsible for studying the effects of changes in temperature, pressure and volume of a physical system that could be: a material, a liquid, a set of bodies, among others. At a level of study and macroscopic analysis. The ‘thermo’ origin means heat and dynamic to movement, knowing its meaning we can say that thermodynamics study the movement of heat in a body. The subject is composed of different particles that move in a disorderly way in order to study this movement.
In general terms, thermodynamics deals with the transfer of energy from one place to another and from one way to another. The key concept is that heat is a form of energy that corresponds to a defined amount of mechanical work. It is practically based on the diversity of physical phenomena that it describes. Consequently, it has allowed knowledge to sign its technological productivity on a large scale. Observing the effects they have at the macroscopic level, temperature changes, pressure, density, mass and volume in each system.
It is essential to perceive its basic concepts, previously to understand what the thermodynamics process is like. The state of equilibrium is one of them, it is one that is characterized as the dynamic process that has room in a system as much what is the volume and the temperature and the pressure do not vary.
Origin of thermodynamics
The empirical thermodynamic procedures that led to the construction of elements that ended up being the most used for the development of man being one of the most extensive and known disciplines in history.
The movement produced by the energy of water vapor, led to arouse the curiosity of many physics lovers and other disciplines. This was perfected technology in order to facilitate life to be human grace, manual work was replaced by machines that performed in their realization as in their speed.
The next objective was to deepen the maximum performance potential with respect to the operations and operation of the steam, managing to be governed to the laws and principles of the same. Thanks to these vapor principles and its primitive sources, thermodynamics was expanding new areas in its field referring to internal combustion engines and the last thing in rockets. The construction of the boilers also played an important role in the binomial of thermal-ttermodynamic machines.
The use of steam properties to suck water from the mines was the beginning where it stood out as such, today it is about achieving maximum powers with a minimum of pollution and a maximum of economy this means that it does not try to limit yourself andThey look for forms of development, since their yields were insignificant. With the identification of the primitive thermal machines were the advancement of thermodynamics over time. And it was divided into three stages: empirical, technological and scientific.
The empirical stage
Thermodynamics marked an origin in his experience and findings perfecting over time.
Its origin mentions that its old machines were built in laboratories, some models the thermal machines also were part in the existence of Christ in those times that were used as instruments for the creation of autonomous movements. Herón’s eolipila was an artifact that used the reaction produced by steam when leaving a hole to achieve a displacement. Being the first machine that used the beginning of the turbines we currently know.
In 1929 the Italian Giovanni Branca designed a machine that had the ability to make a movement based on the impulse that produced on a wheel the steam that came out through a pipe being the first attempt to build action turbines that we know today. But it is not known if in reality if it was built.
Savery’s fire machine was the first application of work through the strength of the steam crystallizes. This machine consisted of a cylinder connected by means of a pipe to the water source that was wantedemptiness allowed.
The technological stage
The Savery pump had a mobile element the manual drive valves, it worked by making the void, in the same way that the aspiring bombs now do, so the technology of that time was not suitable for the achievement was emptied high. Thomas Newcomen steam machine built in 1712 and was the first separate separate. It consisted of the use of the cylinder void to move a piston that in turn provided movement to a lever arm that acted on a conventional pump of the so-called aspiring-impeller.
This machine represents the beginning the history of thermal machines. The dimensions of the cylinder, the main organ for the creation of the movement were: 53.3 cm in diameter and 2.4 meters high, produced 12 races per minute and raised 189 liters of water from a depth of 47.5 meters. The Newcomen machine is that the production of an oscillatory movement enables the use of the machine for other services that require alternative movement, that is, of sway.
At that time there were no methods that allowed to measure the power developed by the machines or units that allowed the comparison of their performance, however, the following data give an idea of the work done by a machine that worked in a mine in France, hadA cylinder of 76 cm in diameter and 2.7 meters high, with it could be completed in 48 hours a decoupter work that had previously required a week with the work of 50 men and 20 horses operating in shifts during the 24 hours of the 24 hours of theday.
The English John Smeaton was the one who finished completing the Newcomen machine. We can see a detail of the power in the work in charge of Catalina II of Russia who requested water to pump the dry dikes of the Kronstadt fort. This task took a year using 100 -meter high wind mills, the Smeaton machine took only two weeks. It should be noted that the improvement consisted of the optimization of the mechanisms, valve closures, etc.
The founder of thermodynamics as theoretical discipline Sadi Carnot, who at 23 wrote his summit. This writing was unknown for 25 years until the physicist Lord Kelvin rediscovered the importance of the proposals contained in him. But apparently Kevin was not satisfied with the theories, since they did not value the proposals for the design of steam machines and caught the attention by not referring to an engine, machine or fluid in particular.
Carnot was the one who developed the concept of cyclic process causing his proposal to have bases and that the work occurred entirely ‘dropping’ heat from a high temperature source to a low temperature deposit. Also appropriating the concept of reversible machine.
It is important to adapt with the concepts that we are going to introduce, then, although in a first approach they may seem somewhat indefinite, they would allow you to study the behavior of solid systems (an engine, an air inflator, etc.) quite precision. Thermology and mechanics are disciplines of thermodynamics that were separated until the 19th century. The first was only in charge of thermal phenomena and the second simply movement, strength and work.
The conservation principle is the first law of energy thermodynamics, it is said that if a system makes a heat exchange with another, its own internal energy will be transformed. Carrying out the first law, the second law of thermodynamics consists of different restrictions for energy transfers is fulfilled. And finally we have the third the law of thermodynamics, mentioning that it is not possible to achieve a thermal mark that reaches absolute zero through a finite amount of physical procedures.