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Therapeutic change in obsessive-compulsive disorder
Over time it has been demonstrated as therapeutic interventions have facilitated the process of change in individuals with various types of mental disorders. This has also promoted the creation of therapeutic techniques that have proven to be effective for the solution of different pathologies in a short time period. As in the case of obsessive-compulsive disorder (TOC), which is one of the most frequent of mental disorders and only few people receive treatment.
In the process of therapeutic change we find two types of levels. In the first one a partial healing of the person’s ailments is carried out, it refers to a symptomatic change. In this part, one of the problems that stop the treatment is born, since on numerous occasions people limit themselves to going beyond this first step, thus hindering the path of their personal growth.
As Mary Goulding said about it: I think it corresponds to the client to decide how many victories you want and which. He chooses his healing. Even, and beyond suicide and homicide problems, it can define as healthy what others define as a disease. He may only want to be cured of his phobia to the grasshoppers. You may want the moon … Okay, while assessing the cures you have achieved on the way. (Goulding, 1980)
The second level transforms the structure of the person both in his personality and in his physical facet, at this stage the individual begins a process of change that generates an integral restructuring. At this level there is talk of a whole or nothing, bone this process can be given of different degrees deep and the rhythm of people must be respected when leaving ancient patterns and implementing new. (Ortega, 2013)
Therefore, therapeutic interventions are progressing according to the disposition of the person, at this point the therapists must be able to interrupt those counterproductive vicious circles. For these maneuvers to be effective, they must go to subvert the logic of the problem, reorienting it to their solution. For this, it is essential to differentiate any form of pathology in order to build the same model of strategic logic. The effectiveness of all these strategies will depend on whether the correct therapy is applied.
Neurobiological effects of pharmacological therapy
Psychotherapy affects cerebral metabolic rates and a decrease in the metabolic rate of>, after the use of psychotherapy in patients with TOCs has been demonstrated. This therapy is based on using antidepressants, whether the most modern serotonin reception inhibitors, and in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder, through behavioral therapies, the efficacy of changes in serotonergic activity has been proven, tothrough the measurement of changes platelet levels of serotonin. In this therapy there is an improvement of 40 to 60% in patients and side effects such as difficulty in sexual development, are assumed. Selective inhibitors of the re-caption of serotonin ISRS, are the only medications approved by the administration of the American drug for the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder. Although many patients improve, few manage to minimize their symptoms with an exclusive treatment of SSR (Higuera, 2013) although this therapy in turn has had bad comments to their treatment, but in other cases it has been favorable. And so if it is not very helpful, several investigations recommend using therapies such as strategic brief therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy.
Cognitive behavioral therapy
The strategies and stratagems that are used to improve these pathologies have bases that make them perceive as great magnitude solutions. In the case of brief strategic therapy that is based on ancient strategic theoretics, as well as many other therapies. Any type of pathology is considered as a bilogical disease that must be cured, but as a dysfunctionality that must be transformed into functional.
This problem is grabbed by a dynamic that is self – esteem, but not on bilogical bases, nor of erroneous learning, but as an effects of exacerbation and ankylosing of adaptive strategic ones, which become tried solutions. This in turn becomes what the problem maintains and hinders instead of solving it, but as these solutions work at first, they constitute the foundation of its application. Therefore, the efficacy and efficiency of strategic and therapeutic stratagems have allowed us to have a clearer and more empirical knowledge of the functioning of these dysfunctional imbalances.
It is here where the aforementioned therapies intervene (Brief Strategic Therapy and Cognitive-Acconducual Therapy). The similarity of these two approaches is based on three aspects that are: a modern constructivist epistemology, rigorous intervention protocols and the last use empirical and experimental models.
Brief strategic therapy focuses on unlocking symptomatology, quickly since its technique is to change the perception of the person in the face of their reality and then have the ability to handle it. In an interview with Giorgio Nardone, he defines strategic brief therapy such as "the art of solving complex human problems through seemingly simple solutions". (Nardone, 2010) UndoubtedPersist for years, this is not why they must also require long and complicated solutions.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy, unlike the strategic approach, derives from learning theory, bone that leads to the patient through a process that is based on combating or managing the disorder with voluntary effort. This therapy occurs progressively through learning to control thinking and actions.
Pharmacological treatment and cognitive-behavioral theory are very compatible and has demonstrated similar or higher efficiency with a lower rate of relapse. This therapy consists in undressing what is feared (thought or reality) prohibiting from performing avoidance behaviors, in this case neutralizing rituals, which the patient risks feeling anxiety. The acceptance of the anxiety that is felt is a process that helps in treatment. Each of the therapies are effective in the treatment of TOC, but it is necessary to know how to apply them, that is, knowing how to communicate persuading patients to follow the indications. (Porteli, 2015)
While it seems to us the therapies mentioned are very important in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder, although some have turned out to be more used due to their rapid positive response. Both approaches produce change processes as learning processes. Studies have shown that psychotherapy produces neurochemical changes especially at serotonin levels, additional is psychotherapy a process comparable to chronic exposure to a controlled stimulus.
- Goulding, m. (1980). Definition of the cure . Dictators, Emperors, and People, 133-134. Higuera, j. a. (2013). Compulsive Obsessive Disorder treatments. Madrid.
- Nardone, g. (2010). Brief strategic therapy: an invented reality that produces specific effects. (P. R. Sánchez, interviewer) Ortega, M. b. (2013). Centerbesai. Obtained from www.HumanrapiaSter Psychotherapy.it is
- Porteli, g. N. (2015). Obsessions Compulsions and Manias . Barcelona: Herder.