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Theory of the dependency of the twentieth century
His first indications arise for the twentieth century based on past events such as:
The decline of the imperialist powers by the end of the 19th century, one of them and as already raised in the timeline the formation of new states in Asia and Africa at the end of the 19th century, the First World War at the beginning of the 20th century, theCrisis of 1929 and World War II mid -twentieth. One of the most important events involved in its development was the solidification of the United States as a world power and seen from this moment as a developed country.
Developed countries are those that are distinguished by having a stable economy “quality education, more advanced health matter etc.”;On the contrary, underdeveloped nations are those that try to copy the type of prevailing economic model. Returning again and as an example to the United States (developed country), a fact that occurred due to its scientific-technical revolution, through which “the system of national and multilateral institutions” were created;with the objective of creating alternatives through research in the incorporation of the economy world worldwide.
On the other hand there are Latin American nations, in a debate around the 20s of the 19th century until the 50s of the same century, having as main idea underdevelopment, known as "Latin American Development Development Development". As a cornerstone during the discussion were the classical Marxist theory and neo-marxism. Marxist philosophy or political philosophy which serves to achieve revolutionary or praxis practice, currently performed by a large number of sociologists, philosophers, historians, researchers, among which was Bagu, Caio, Guerreiro etc., which resulted in a great diversity of thoughts and proposals on colonialism and the difficulties involved in economic development.
Already for the twentieth century weberian functionalism or structuralist theory is born, meanwhile with periphery center models;Involving the study of central economies as self-sufficient and uncompeitive peripheral economies in the market. This model together with the Marxist denies the idea that international economies benefit all countries in context, proposing that only those centrals are the beneficiaries.
For this time Paul Baran and Paul Sweezy supported the idea of capitalism in Latin America. During this same century, the Economic Commission for Latin America ECLAC proposes an introspective policy based on imports from import substitution (ISI). And Paul Baran together with Paul Sweezy based on the idea of Latin American capitalism based on classical Marxism and neo-marxism, here is then the theory of dependency and brings with it a hard criticism of the hegemony of imperialist countries, showing how underdeveloped countriesThey had an economy dependent on their development. Within this, the following characteristics stand out:
- Third -world countries have a degree of subordination in relation to the center
- The economic development of nations in periphery rises when their links to the center are weak.
- Peripheral nations is affected when the economy of the central nations is restored and takes them again as subordinates.
In conclusion, countries geographically located in the north or developed countries are those that represent within the theory the center, except Australia, which is located to the south but belongs to the center;On the other hand there are underdeveloped or geographically south countries which represent the periphery.