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The Spanish Inquisition and the Power of an Navy
Identification and evaluation of sources:
The main objective of this historical research is to evaluate and analyze the strong impact that the Inquisition of Spain had in the society of past centuries. The question that guides this investigation is: to what extent did the Spanish Inquisition affected in the society of the years 1478-1834?, Which entails investigating why this system was instituted, as well as the interest in knowing the set of ideologies that justified these procedures and how the society of the past centuries influence.
For the research of the subject, different primary and secondary sources will be used, where we can find the description that historians give to this topic. As secondary sources we have two writings, the first by Prof. Ricardo Cappa and the second is the book by the historian José Pardo Tomás.
These sources are very useful, since the two focus on the development of the Inquisition and detail different aspects of this. Therefore, it helps us to better understand everything that this process entails that lasted many years as a system.
This thesis was written by Professor Ricardo Cappa, who was a Jesuit priest, historian and Spanish writer, who once destined for Peru would devote his time to the understanding of history where he would highlight for his studies on the denomination of Spain in America and the InquisitionSpanish
It was carried out by him as part of an arduous study of the history of Spanish society, in addition you can have the effectiveness of how effective this text can be, since it has the stamp of the Harvard University Bookstore, in addition to theTime that the author dedicated to his work where it is known that he denied several of the imputations that had been granted to the Holy Office.
Because of this, you can get a lot of information about all this, since in the brief it is perceived and analyzed to the Inquisition from another point of view, not from the condemnatory part with which this system has been known, but ratherIt exposes a slightly clearer and fixed trial in ideas.
This book was carried out by the researcher José Pardo Tomás, who has been at the forefront of many research projects focused on issues of modern and contemporary era, after a period of 6 years interrupted by academic matters, managed to specify this book that stands out on hisHistoriographic debate between the Inquisition and Science.
Thanks to this text, we can analyze how inquisitorial censorship in those centuries according to medical and scientific issues, since this prohibition is a way of seeing how the society of those times was limited to several aspects that would lead to its development.
The Spanish Inquisition, also known as the Court of the Holy Office, was an instrument imposed by the Fernando II of Aragon and Isabel I of Castile Los Reyes Católicos. Before the creation of the Holy Office, with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs, a Hispanic monarchy had formed that linked to the crown of Aragon with that of Castile, but this whole territory would not escape the conflicts between Christians and Jews, the latterThey began to be persecuted and killed, for reasons of envy according to the position they had, in front of this they had to choose conversion to Christianity to avoid death. But many did not believe in this conversion and assured that the Judaizing practices followed, for this the kings created in 1478 the Holy Inquisition with the consent of the Pope through the promulgation of a bull, to placate the heresies and in an attempt to unify the people withThe same belief. To this, Ciaramitaria determines that “between 1478 and 1821 its objective was to destroy each form of heresy and, adapting to time and different places, a functional inquisitorial instrument was established to the circumstances and demands of the secular and ecclesiastical authorities”
Once the Inquisition was established, in a short time it began to expand to the entire empire and execute the converts accused for continuing to practice their religion, at the beginning to increase the number of inquisitors, the need to name a general inquisitor was seen, it is hereWhere Fray Tomás de Torquemada becomes one of the main characters throughout this process, known as a strong persecutor of every heresy, taking him to the point of cruelty. According to Cervera, the thirst for a conversation that possessed torquemada and its undetermined activity spread the fear throughout the Iberian Peninsula, to the point of existing eight courts in different cities for 1492. With torquemada at the head of the Inquisition he was one of the main influentconserve their properties to the Jews who abandoned, which is determined that they were approximately 50.000, the other part decided to become Christianity.
This process shows us the first great impact that the Inquisition had in society, due to the large number of Jews they abandoned, and went to Portugal, Italy and many other European regions, due to its emigration, Spanish society suffered a decrease in its Population, despite just being the Jews, in addition the kings would be forced to stop entering the taxes corresponding to this minority, although this can also be taken as an attempt to reestablish the social order; On the other hand, the Judeoconvers were called Marranos and according to Ciaramitaria “the economic activities of their parents linked to commerce and changes continue It is not even concentrated both in heresies but also to monitor the Judeoconversos, while on the other side of the currency the Muslims continued to maintain their religious freedom, which would not last long.
Over the years the Inquisition remained with an uninterrupted period of executions for heresies, but in 1500 a period of grace was determined, in which the Judeoconverss would not be severely punished for their accusations, a payment was enough for which thousandsJudeoconversos attended the inquisitors, but with the converts that did not appear to pay, a ruthless time of persecutions would begin, promoting a collective terror. But this small process would be nothing to the new social crisis that the population would experience in Spain. With the death of Fernando II of Aragon, his grandson Carlos I of Spain would happen on the throne and a year later, in 1517, the Church would be divided by the Protestant Reform, a movement that according to Díaz brought with him a crisis in the churchCristiana, Pope’s authority would be questioned by accusing him of corruption, also proposing a new faith that would be based on the Bible, he would have a direct communication to God and not with his intermediaries. This Protestant Reform would become the potential threat of the Inquisition, since it spread rapidly thanks to the fact that it had the printing press created by Gutenberg, thus allowing the propaganda to be its most effective weapon against the Holy Office. This same invention allowed in 1554 one of the Protestants to publish his work, "The book of the martyrs", which was accompanied by a large number of graphs where different tortures and executions of the Holy Office were exaggerated exaggerated. Foxe recounts:
They forced his arms behind so that the palms of his hands were turned out behind him;Then, through a rope that tied them by the doll, and that was pulled by a lathe, they gradually approached them in a way that the dorsos of the hands were touched and were parallel. As a consequence of this violent contortion, its two shoulders were dislocated, and threw a considerable amount of blood through the mouth. This torture was repeated three times, after which he was again taken to his dungeon, where the surgeon did his divered bones well.
This propagation of ideas was the main reason that gave the Inquisition its famous denomination of monstrous court, thus arriving by dividing the different opinions of that time and creating the well -known Spanish black legend. Faced with the Protestant reform, the counter -reform was imposed that initially sought the reconciliation of the Protestants with the Church, but in reality it was a council with which the dogmas were organized and put the Inquisition as a guardian of the doctrine. For the second half of the sixteenth century, with a triumphant counter -reform the Inquisition became an invulnerable system, now it did not focus only on converts, but also pursued the heretical practices of Protestants, as well as blasphemy, witchcraft, sodomy and bigamy. Due to all this cappa period it ensures. "That people was not, it could not be indifferent to the ultra -religious feelings that warmed their hearts" thus highlighting the division between the old Jews and the old Christians, for which everything began, and that triggers the persecution of all religious practice thatNot related to Christianity.
The Holy Office affected the entire context of the society of those times, also the scientific field through inquisitorial censorship, since Masson stressed “Spanish has an aptitude for the sciences, there are many books and, nevertheless, perhaps it is themost ignorant nation in Europe. What can be expected from a town that needs permission from a friar to read?". With the Inquisition from the years I stop having the weight that had been centuries before, and finally abolished on July 15, 1834 by the decree that was issued by María Cristina, mother of Queen Elizabeth II.
To conclude it should be noted that the Spanish Inquisition was not a court as monstrous as social construction has made us believe, it is true that it was a system that executed and torture thousands of people, but this was simply based on the allusion of a territory thatbe governed by the same faith. The society that lived this process suffered many crises according to economic, social and moral aspects all for religious hatred present in this and all the territories of the Peninsula.
With the completion of the research work and after an analysis of primary and secondary historical sources it can be understood as the work of a researcher must have an arduous selection of sources that can often present many limitations.
These limitations are related to the reliability of the sources, nowadays there are technology and the Internet that facilitates access to information on some historical subject, but the information that it possesses is not always very safe, since it tends toBeing modifiable or many differ with others as soon.
Also when deepening different sources, I could realize that many times historians do not have the same capacity as mathematicians or scientists in being objectives, since a historical event entails many branches of events that are fundamental in everything that involves the subject. The interest in my issue arose because it is a religious system that everyone knows and at the same time social construction has made believe that it has been one of the worst events in the history of humanity, but by being able to analyze and compare different sources to myselfI got to question whether the Spanish Inquisition was as bad as everyone raises it, but in the end I understood that this is thought about the generalization of all the inquisitorial processes that were carried out in all the territories of the Peninsula.
The fact of analyzing a primary source, as was "the book of the martyrs" was very useful, since I help to understand how the fame of the monstrous court received by the Holy Office, by the Protestants, was disseminated by the Protestants.
Finally, with the wide range of information that can be found, I could understand that a historian’s work is very important, since he must analyze different points of view on the objective topic to reach a conclusion in which he has the eventsand clear ideologies.
- CAPPA, R. (1888). The Spanish Inquisition. Madrid: Antonio Pérez Dubrull printing .
- Cervera, c. (December 19, 2018). The reasons why the Spanish Inquisition was not the sadistic beast that has told you the black legend. Obtained from ABC History: https: // www.ABC.It is/History/ABCI-Razones-Inquisition-Espanola-No-Bestia-Sadica-Condida-Legend-Negra-201812170226_Notic.HTML
- CiaRamitaro, f. (2007). The Holy Spanish Office and Molinosista heresy . Mexico: Autonomous University of the State of Mexico.
- Farías, r. (October 31, 2018). The Protestant Reform: When the Church removed its foundations. Obtained from the Left Diario: http: // www.The Imits.com/la-reform-protester-when-the-church-removio-sys-orcimientos
- Foxe, j. (s.F.). THE BOOK OF THE MÁRTIRES. Obtained from History and Truth: http: // historyyverdad.org/El-Bro-de-Los-Martirres.PDF
- Galende, j. (s.F.). History and documentation of the Holy Spanish Office: The functional period. Obtained from https: // www.UCM.es/data/cont/docs/446-2013-08-22-5%20history.PDF
- Lever, j. (s.F.). The Spanish Inquisition. Obtained from the crisis in history: https: // www.Lacrisisdelahistoria.com/Inquisition-Espanola/
- Pardo, j. (1991). ). Science and censorship. The Spanish Inquisition and scientific books in the 16th and 17th centuries. Madrid: Higher Council for Scientific Research.
- Beach. (June 15, 2018). The Inquisition in 15 minutes. Obtained from https: // www.Youtube.com/watch?V = DXRCFN1Z4MI