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The Revolution of Augusto César Sandino and the dictatorship of the Somoza family in Nicaragua
The Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) is a military and political movement of the Nicaraguan left, founded on July 23, 1961 by the revolutionary Carlos Fonseca and other opponents, in question to the leader Augusto Cesar Sandino, with the sole purpose of overthrowing the Somocista dictatorship and expel the US National Guard. The dictatorial regime was in command of Anastasio Somoza García, who only sought to exploit the resources of this country in order to obtain personal benefits.
In Nicaragua, citizens had become slaves, since the dictatorial government did not respect the rights of people, they had also forbidden them to torture or convicted of death.
The present research work is to investigate what was the process of establishing a social democratic government in Nicaragua by the Sandinista party.
The question on which this monograph is based is: to what extent does the revolution of Augusto César Sandino contributed to ending the absolutist government and dictator of the Somoza family during the Cold War? Where the most important background will be analyzed for the formation of the FSLN, among them are the participation of revolutionaries, merchants and opponents who were tired of a prolonged domain, who recovered the Sandinist political initiative to create a party that ends the Somocista regime and help Nicaragua improve his deplorable situation in which he was.
On the other hand, the positive and negative actions of the Sandinista movement will be examined during the fall of the Somocista government and the establishment of a new Democratic Government in Nicaragua, as well as the impact that this confrontation caused this confrontation.
From all these events, the interest of investigating the main reasons that produced the independence of Nicaragua has emerged, for this reason different sources of reliable information that provide true information about this event will be used.
During the end of the seventies of the twentieth century, Latin America perceived a difficult political fluctuation, in which, mainly the progressive and left forces had the risk that their interests suffer from political instability.
Nicaragua was no exception since his nation was subject to the immemorial dictatorship of Anastasio Somoza, promoter who entails Nicaragua to the failed, who under the subsistence of his family and the support of the United States, had appropriated the entire Nicaraguan people, Manying it as a farm and not as a nation, because the Somoza family only watched over their interests, their army behaved like the organic custodian of his family since they were responsible for accompanying him in their administrative, marketing and policy tasks Since the parties or people left against their party were tortured and suppressed by the same state.
However, the role played by the agents of the clergy in the neighborhoods, were established with the sole objective of creating educational institutions that build people’s awareness, where the pieces and devices that were willing to assume the costs of war were formed, Facing the Somocista dictatorship, despite the fact that in these groups there were no leaders, which was a weakness of organization that benefit the Somocista dictatorship.
But it should be noted that the FSLN movement, founded in 1961 had military and timely behavior, which took Augusto Sandino, a fighter politician who defended the rights of the Nicaraguan people and faced the incursion of the US army, as well as I am looking for End the Somoza regime through a confrontation where Nicaragua’s power would go to the FSLN.
However, the FSLN made certain mistakes because it believed that it had enough capacity to fight the Somocista dictatorship, but after some losses deliberated that the support of Nicaraguans was necessary, that was how the FSLN was internally restructured, which which He strengthened his party since the people began to take it to defeat the Somocista dictatorship.
Background of the Revolution
General Augusto Cesar Sandino was the symbol and direct reference of the Revolution (1893-1934), a national figure that | was supported by troops of workers and peasants who sought to pacify the Nicaraguan area, as well as strengthen democracy.
Navarrete (2018) states that “in the mountains of Segovia, Sandino and his small troop he faced the American army, regardless of numerical inequality and arms technology”
But, it should be noted that Sandino’s army had a superiority in tactics, which could never be suppressed by Americans. However, until when the foreign armies emerged, the National Guard formed, governed by the military Anastasio Somoza García, who later with political cunning came to power in 1937.
On the other hand, Somoza’s absolute alliance together with the United States and the National Guard, provided a dictatorial domain over Nicaragua, because, politicians or citizens who acted against their party were controlled or mortified sometimes, leading them to them to Death, given that torture towards political or people in general were drastically applied mercilessly, so that in 1956, a young Leonese lyric named Rigoberto López Pérez, was massacred after having the courage to shoot the autocrat Somoza at a party at a party social, an act that led to the death of the dictator.
After the attack on the dictator Somoza, his eldest son Luis Somoza Debayle, assumes the power of the presidency of Nicaragua while his younger brother Anastasio Somoza Debayle occupies the position of Chief in the National Guard. However, years later Luis Somoza dies of a heart attack, leaving power to his younger brother.
As follows, in 1967 after the elections, in the Nicaraguan government a devastating and restrictive dictatorial regime by Anastasio Somoza Debayle, younger brother of Luis Somoza Debayle, who continues to accumulate an infinity of wealth.
It should be noted that the 1972 earthquake ruined Managu However, the discontent of the people increased, so the National Guard submitted or mortified people who intervened against the Government, whether political opponents, as well as a general population..
Reasons that promoted the emergence of the Sandinista Revolution
It is known as a process open to the Nicaraguan Revolution or Sandinista Revolution, a period that extended from July 1978 to February 1990, cope with the FSLN (named in a question in question to Augusto Cesar Calderón Sandino) ideology that managed to put an end to the Somocista dictatorship, to establish a progressive leftist government. (Diego, 2011, p. 1)
In 1934, the leader Augusto Cesar Sandino, an indisputable hero who had fought against the American intervention to the lands of Nicaragua, is eliminated by Anastasio Somoza García and the American forces, after this situation, in 1936 Anastasio Somaz The only purpose of defending their interests through the establishment of a dictatorial system, supported by US forces.
At the beginning XX the ideals of the left and the disputes of freedom of conquered peoples of their metropolis were growing, that is, the ideologies in Nicaragua against the dictatorship were in full boom, resulting in the creation of the SLN.
In 1959, after the defeat of the Cuban dictatorial regime of Fulgencio Batist. In that context, the FSLN emerged, revolutionary movement founded in 1961, after the integration of some young people from various organizations, such as patriotic youth, socialist youth, Nicaraguan Revolutionary Youth, JPN and MNN, in which some important leaders such as Carlos such as Carlos participate such as Carlos Fonseca, Tomas Borge, Francisco Buitrago, Navarro and Silvio Mayorga.
It should be noted that the FSLN since its inception suffered an identity crisis because in many times the name of the party was evolved since, this was the result of the alliance of the various participating sectors. However, until, in 1969, the movement established its ideological bases from a document in which its main political objectives and guidelines are collected.
For (Ramirez Soriano, 2016) FSLN in its preamble is defined as a political-military development organization capable of recovering political power and restoring a revolutionary government in Nicaragua as well as improving the social system that reduces exploitation and poverty, Through the frontal struggle against their enemies, based on a labor-champion alliance and the participation of all anti-oligarchic and anti-imperialist patriotic forces that are against the dictatorial regime. The objectives of the FSLN are divided into thirteen points, where the establishment of a revolutionary government, an agrarian revolution, an educational revolution and a labor revolution are found.
In 1972, after the earthquake that devastated the city of Managu.
The death of the American journalist Pedro Chamorro caused a great disorder in the dictatorship of Nicaragua, which facilitated the Sandinista forces to continue advancing with the revolution.
Origins of the dispute between the Sandinista and Somocista revolutions
"History dates back to 1926 when the hero of the resistance Augusto Sandino begins to carry out a revolution against the American occupation and the mandate of Anastasio Somoza García" (Fernández Estecche, 2017).
The fall of the Somocista dictatorship symbolized, one of the best moments that Nicaragua obtained after constant struggles, thanks to the support and strength of the Nicaraguan people. The FSLN was able to establish a new democratic regime, which hosted laws and policies, such as democracy, sovereignty, political pluralism, self-determination and economic transformation.
The beginnings of this movement were difficult because they did not have enough clothing teams, which did not allow them to remain advanced in the war since their enemies had a great capacity for technological and sophisticated armament, given that the first military action that carried out the Sandinista movement ended in a massacre, since the Honduran Army and the National Guard had cornered them.
Regardless of the initial defeat, the FSLN decided not to retire. People seeing the attitude of the anti -ocista movement, pointed as volunteers, among them, are the peasants, students, Nicaraguan landowners, accomplices of allied political parties of the FSLN among other people, who with the passing of days, the supporters began to be part of the movement, amplifying the military ranks of the FSLN.
The combatants of the Sandinista movement increased more and more, to the point, that Somoza could not believe it.
In 1967 there was a second Sandinist.
However, the dictator Somoza, upon learning of the existence of a house located in the city of Managua where his enemies remained, I do not hesitate to act drastically with the guerrillas of the FSLN movement, aiming to annihilate the Sandinista revolution through a centenary of aircraft, soldiers and tanks, which were directed to the housing house.
The offensive lasted for a few hours, until Somoza’s combatants entered the house because they no longer listened to noise, but they were surprised that a single person had been fighting with them, it was the honorable Julio Buitrago, who It had remained to combat Somocista soldiers and thus allow their companions to flee the place.
While this happened, Somoza was transmitting on television everything that was happening, because he intended to demonstrate the decay of the FSLN, but the young man’s attitude made the situation change, people began to feel more identified with the revolutionary movement.
However, Somoza’s supporters began strong repressions against the collaborators of the revolutionary movement.
During 1970, the FSLN went to a stage of collection of forces in mutism, a period in which he had to reduce his war actions to enhance his organization and train his soldiers more for four years. On the other hand, in the following years, Somoza launched indiscriminate repressions against collaborators and suspicious due to the fighting of the cities carried out by the FSLN. (Navarrete, Oscar, 2018)
In 1976 with the death of the maximum leader of the FSLN, Carlos Fonseca, the FSLN was divided into three guidelines that continued with the confrontation: the insurrectional party, the proletarian party and the Prolonged Popular War Party, which formed the Sandinista supporter called Sandinista Front of national liberation.
One of the guidelines that made up the revolutionary movement, at the end of the subsequent year, the insurrectional FSLN launched an energetic aggression against some cities where the national guard barracks remained, which were successful, however, the war was again in favor in favor of the National Guard due to the arms superiority that it had, being considered superior on the FSLN movement.
In the same way, during that year, the group of the twelve is launched, which was an endorsement of the FLSN that represented all Nicaraguan classes at social and political level, likewise, this movement was formed by a hundred equalized soldiers Belonging urban associations that, after exposing for various reasons, summoned all the country’s peoples to be part of the intermingling against the Somocista power.
A year later, the director of the press and opponent of the Somoza dictatorship, Pedro Joaquín Chamorro, dies, a fact that made the Nicaraguan population protest because the dictator of the journalist’s death was blamed, causing repulsion in the business class.
In 1977, during the month of August, a faction of combatants of the insurrectionary supporter invaded the Central Court of Managu Freedom to political inmates, inform the country about revolutionary actions and approve the exit of foreign guards. (Navarrete, Oscar, 2018).
After the death of the American journalist, popular discontent increased for which international opinion requested Anastasio Somoza to leave power immediately, since this situation was pronouncing by some nations of America, such as Panama, Costa Rica, Venezuela and Mexico , which supported the revolutionary movement so they offered secret help to the combatants, as well as Cuba for many years had been providing support to Nicaragua.
Since many countries did not agree with the dictatorship of the Somoza, so they were inclined to provide support to the Sandinista movement, resulting in several combat periods, the situation began to become in favor of the revolutionaries, without However, the National Guard does not stop preserving its cruel control over them.
Fall of the Somocista dictatorship
By 1979, in different regions of Nicaragua some instructed allies of the FSLN political movement had been established, so Somoza’s troops forged inhuman attacks on their armies, also affecting the entire population.
"In March, the three trends conclude a force unification agreement, forming a single FSLN, which calls the civilian population and all fronts to start a final attack in June" (Navarrete, Oscar, 2018).
It was when in this month the guerrilla development was undertaken, which was intended to congregate in Managua with the other fronts, in disdain of the dictatorship.
However, Somoza unleashed an active attack on all Protestant cities, causing civil losses. But the power of the FSLN had grown uncontrollably so that the main cities of the country were redeemed from the control of the Somoza.
Likewise, the United States regime after Anastasio Somoza Debayle had been blamed for the murder of an American journalist, he decided that he must abandon the power of Nicaragua before being defeated, in order to prevent the restoration of a revolutionary government, However, Somoza did not agree with the Americans so I try to dominate the national uprising, something impossible.
On the other hand, on July 17, 1979, Somoza and his allies left the country, but they took great fortunes, while on July 19 of the same year, hundreds of military and population met at the center of the Republic for celebrate the fall of the dictatorship.
After the triumph, in Nicaragua, the national reconstruction governments were predisposed to create a new nation, in which the properties of Somoza would be seized, where the riches belonging to the dictator’s family should be returned to the government, likewise it would be reduced The country’s illiteracy because Nicaragua was planned to rebuild new educational institutions for the Nicaraguan population.
However, after Somoza’s death in 1980, who was in Paraguay, after having fled from the United States, his allies who had placed themselves in Miami, created a new political power.
Likewise, Nicaragua had managed to win an enormous international sympathy, so some European nations, organizations or civilian population began to collaborate to begin the reconstruction of the same.
On the other hand, the North American regime was illegally supporting the remnants of the National Guard, which caused the national counterrevolution to be established or also called against, so the war was restarted, repeatedly causing a decline in the economy in the economy Nicaraguan.
As follows, the FSLN summoned all the leaders, where the leftist political party was formed.
The elections were won by a wide margin. However, the war increased public discontent, and some mistakes made by the Sandinista government caused many peasants, especially in the Caribbean area (in the autonomous regions of the Atlantic) to swell to swell the ranks of the counter. (Navarrete, Oscar, 2018).
In 1985, the American government declared a commercial seizure about the Nicaraguan people, due to due to pro-communist behavior, sometimes threatening to carry out a general offensive.
However, after the revelation of the Secret of Financing of the Contra by the United States, the international opinion with the Government of Nicaragua solidarity.
In 1988, after an effective military attack by the national government about the Americans who formed the against, the friendship negotiations began and a suspension was marketing.
The Sandinist regime in 1989 legalized an agreement that promised to celebrate the appointments of the following years, that is, in Nicaragua you could already hold the triumph of the movements they won in the elections, which were submitted by a contrary confederation.
Currently, the revolutionary movement is one of Nicaragua’s most energetic political parties, regardless of that its rulers are currently contrary due to political disagreements.
Effects produced by the Sandinista Revolution of Nicaragua
The Sandinista Revolution of Nicaragua produced certain effects that affected Nicaragua’s political and economic stability. The most main consequences of the Nicaraguan revolution are:
Around 65.000 human losses, in which many families were helpless, while others decided to take refuge in other countries.
The Nicaraguan population was subject to an absence of institutional trust.
There were moments of famine due to lack of food and fuel shortage to the corners of the country.
High level of poverty because Nicaragua’s infrastructure was totally decay and external debt was very high.
Increase in illiteracy due to education deficiency
After the 1990 elections in Nicaragu.
Sandinista defense committees were created to control actions or activities that are against the government.
The presidency of Nicaragua had the obligation to rebuild the entire social system and invest considerable amounts of the budget to establish a control developed on the legal system, political institutionality and the economy.
The Sandinista Revolution was a process starring the revolutionaries and dictators of Nicaragua, who faced each other for the government of this country, due to various factors that caused the Nicaraguan population to take value to deal with the Somoza dynasty.
In 1969, Carlos Fonseca along with the support of other intellectuals and volunteers founded the Sandinista Nicaraguan Liberation Front (FSLN), named in gratitude to the leader and politic His actions led him to death, he never abandoned his struggle for the implementation of a democratic system in Nicaragua. His revolution ideas were preserved during the development of the Somocista dictatorship, to the point that the new Nicaraguan opponents took these ideologies for the formation of the FSLN. The growth was constant when Carlos Fonseca sought the support of merchants, allies and opposites that did not agree with the Somoza family system, since, the relevant actions of the dictatorship caused an exhaustion to the people, achieving in such a way that the Citizenship recognize the firmness and struggle of this renovating supporter, thus allowing these people to join the FSLN army ranks. It should be noted that the beginnings of this revolution were not positive since they suffered several human declines and losses, but the nostalgia of establishing a new government that replaced the government of that then directed by the Somoza family whose interests were to exploit only the resources of the area , without ensuring the interests of citizens. The unassumable conditions of Nicaragua arose the FSLN, a military movement that intended to overthrow this dictatorship at all costs using the arms force so that the somocists yield, therefore, on July 19, 1979, after 16 years of being subjected To a tyrannical administration, the FSLN defeats Anastasio Somoza Debayle, third of the Somoza, establishing in Nicaragua an ideology of the left, democratic and nationalist, which contributed to the total reconstruction of the country. The new Sandinista government managed to meet its objectives, however, the lack of experience led him to withdraw from the government since, the American against American beat him again in the following elections, however to the Americans the administration was difficult because Nicaragua He already had principles of freedom and equality, consequently, years later, the FSLN movement regained power and for the second and last time, ended the absolutist regime parties.
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