The Republic, Plato: Summarizing Its Chapters

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The Republic, Plato: Summarizing its chapters

Book I

The work begins with a conversation between Céfalo and Socrates about the longevity of the first. On the one hand, Céfalo thinks that it has a positive side in addition to the negative that everyone sees, and that it depends on our character to better or worse the old age. On the other hand, Socrates tells Céfalo that his high economic level is what makes it good, to which he answers commenting that really what concerns elderly people is whether they have acted precisely during his life.

So, Socrates asks if it is fine to think that justice is to tell the truth and give each person what corresponds to him, or if justice depends on the factors of the act itself. At that time Polemarco, son of Céfalo, replies that it is the first. Plato’s teacher asks him if he can reason, thus starting the first phase of the Socratic Method, which makes Polemarco change his description of justice to act kindly with the good and harmfully towards the malevolences.

Tired of listening to Socrates’ questions, he firmly asks him to contribute his point of view, an action that ends up bouncing him. This relates the issue that is being discussed with the benefit of the most powerful, referring to the fact that in the cities the governments make the laws at their convenience. Socrates expresses that those who hold power in any situation seek good for others, not only for themselves, without changing the opinion of Trasimaco. In addition, he adds that injustice is virtue.

At this time, Socrates finds the conclusion that he knows nothing, and that in this way he cannot be true of whether it is good or bad for the person. That is why he will begin to investigate together with his interlocutors in the idea of justice.

Book II

In this second book we talk about three types of goods: joy, pleasures and lucrative professions. In my opinion, I believe that justice is in the first.

It is also proposed that justice is less useful than injustic. As far as I am concerned, I think that he is very right, but only if you want to go far in life through evil. On many occasions during the history of mankind, injustice has been very useful to make society progress, although it has been Acosta of others. However, there have been many people who have managed to be important along the path of justice, as is the case of Mahatma Gandhi.

It is also commented that religion serves as an excuse for unfair, because through sacrifices or prayers, you get forgiveness and live without regrets. I think that only the one who really regrets his facts comes to reach peace with himself. We are people, and we have our mistakes. It is also named that virtue, although it is good, always entails suffering, while vice is pleasant despite its dishonor. Relating it to the aforementioned, I consider that vice makes you feel good superficially, but inside you will feel bad about yourself.

Finally, there is talk of the attitude of the soldiers in case of war, which must be pious. For me, in this type of case, the warriors must act a little unfairly against their enemies, since they must ensure the safety of the land inhabitants that protect, or in the same way, ideology;But always avoiding killing unnecessarily. In the event that it is a problem in the city, they must be fair, in the sense that if someone has committed any infraction they must be taken before the judges, which are the ones who judge.

Book III

At the beginning of this part of the work we talk about the education of future soldiers that they must receive from young people.

On the one hand, the type of fables and stories that should be told. I consider that all kinds of fables must be counted in which a wide variety of attitudes are shown, so that it represents what society is truly, as long as the bad acts are not praised. What I mean is that there are no stories in which everything is wonderful, because that leads to having a false image of reality.

On the other hand, it is also explained that from very early the beautiful (good) must be taught, so that it acts in this way. I totally agree with this statement, because if you are educated in this way we can love people, which leads to act emphatically and living in society quietly, at the same time to connect with your interior and know yourself better to yourself. In the same way there is talk of physical exercise, which must be practiced without excess, in addition to having a good diet. I consider that the best is always harmony, so in this situation it must also be present between the physical and the moral.

Socrates points out that judges in all societies should be old for good souls. In my opinion, I think that on the one hand these types of people are the most wise, because they have lived many situations in their life that have given them experience, for which they would know how to decide correctly in different situations. Of course, as an element of my harvest I add that these should know how. This is the case, example, of the passage of machismo to feminism, or homophobia to respect people for their sexual orientation.

Book IV

This book begins with the exhibition of the life of the warriors, who are only dedicated to protecting the city and only receive their livelihood as salary, so that they do not get distracted from their work. In my opinion, that is not life, because the only thing you do during it is to work, and I consider that in life you work to be able to live without ties to anyone, apart from feeling realized. If after work you do not have a free social life, I consider that you are not going to be happy, and therefore, it is as if you were a living dead.

According to this, it is expressed that the happiness of the warriors does not matter while there is a general interest. Of course, individual happiness matters, as if you are not going to properly perform your obligations. It is generally fighting, but better results are achieved if individuals are motivated.

Socrates states that education is the basis of a better future society, and I agree, because if young people are well trained, they will have more knowledge and perspective, so that they will act better. In addition, when they are parents, they will transmit their knowledge to their children, so each generation will create a better city.

In this part of the Plato work, it presents the three virtues of society, which are represented in the three social classes of its ideal city. These are prudence, value and temperance. And the three -year harmony leads to justice. In this way, justice is the occupation of the matters themselves.

In the work compare the justice of an ideal city with the justice of a man. This does not seem at all appropriate, since each person is a world with their own circumstances, and although in general you can establish ‘rules’, then you have to look with magnifying glass each case itself and the reasons why they have done thataction. Generalizations are made not to put person per person.

Book v

In this book it is the issue of women and children of the Guardians, which had not yet been felt.

On the one hand, it is said that the women and children of these guardians become common goods. For me, it is inadmissible to consider people as objects, or at least it is what it makes to understand.

Then, however, it fixes it a bit saying that women have the same skills as men, although their level is slightly lower than theirs. This is a consideration that should have been in mind throughout the history of humanity, women are the same as men. They can totally independent of a man and clearly do the same works equally as successfully.

There is talk of a common marriage between guardians, to improve the race and the state. I think this is not totally effective. Although there are some marriages that are dedicated to the same profession and that can lead to better empathize with your partner, I consider that in the differences the emotion is. If you are the same as your partner and do the same as your partner, you will indirectly know all the behaviors of the other person, and that can lead to the couple’s stagnation. As for their children, if both are guardians, they will educate them in their same values and will be guardines. But I would like to let my son decide for himself teaching him all the possibilities.

Apart, there is talk that philosophers must be the rulers, and I consider it a success, because who better than them, who are the wise and the thinking, will do the government work better than them, who do so reasonablyand away from the vanities and temptations of life.

Book VI

In this chapter of Plato’s work, those people who are philosophas are different from those who are not.

In the first place, I agree that people with experience and have their clear ideology are chosen, to avoid too many unnecessary changes in the government that the only thing they bring with them is the discontent of the population.

On the other hand, at that time being a philosopher gave you prestige, and it is commented on the work that much of the supposed philosophers are not the most appropriate to govern. I believe that this is because most do so for convenience or do not have enough temperance to resist the negative trends of the human being, such as beauty and wealth. Others I suppose they will do so to feel the respect of the population and to give pleasure to different society speaking so subjects of any kind.

That is why it is produced that philosophy falls into the hands of these false philosophers that are not really destined to govern, blinded by greed.

In this way, one of the requirements to be is to offer your life to it, dedicate yourself in body and soul as the priests and nuns do, which leave the pleasures of life separated. Another requirement is to have exercised for a long period of time as a guardian. Only these men can become governors. His goal is that they should try to reproduce the celestial structure of the gods.

The rulers must always keep in mind the idea of good, which is the basis of all the ideal. In addition, they must be able to reasonably explain why something is right or bad, as well as their own decisions. I think that all people and general should always act with good by flag, but there are times that we let ourselves be influenced and get carried away by earthly things.

Book VII

In this book Plato presents the allegory of cave to explain the existence of two worlds: the sensitive world and the world of ideas.

At first he tells us that inside the cavern they are prisoners chained from birth to a wall by neck and legs, so that they can only look at a wall that are in front of which the shadows of some silhouettes are projected with shapeof objects or animals from the outside world, which are moved by hooded people who are right on the other side of the wall. These shadows are projected by a fire behind the wall too. Plato tells us that a soldier managed to free himself from the chains and climbed the wall, and then followed a long steep path to get out of the cave. Once outside, he was blinded by the light from the outside, so that to get used to it, he had to first look at the reflexes that were formed in the water of a lake of the real objects. In the end he got used to light and was able to contemplate the real world, being amazed at such beauty.

With this Plato represented the world of things through the interior of the cavern and the world of ideas, through the outside of cave. The chains of the prisoners symbolize ignorance, which prevent us from seeing reality. The exit path is the complicated path to knowledge and objects abroad are eternal and incorruptible ideas. In this way, Plato means that what we observe through the senses (shadows of the silhouettes moved inside) is a simple imperfect copy of reality. The only way to achieve this liberating knowledge is through education and reason.

When the released prisoner returns to the interior of the cave to tell his companions what he has contemplated, they do not believe him for his ignorance.


For Plato the ideal government system is an aristocratic regime.

During this chapter we will talk about 4 types of government, or State diseases as Plato calls, to further perfect its ideal status. They are the following: Timocracy, oligarchy, democracy and tyranny.

Plato states that everything that begins has an end. This is a realistic point of view that opposes the conception of Parmenides according to which the authentic reality is eternal and immovable. I position myself with Plato, since everything in our life tends to end, like our life properly. It is a bit sad to think that, but I consider that this is one of the senses of life, for which we always want to take advantage of time and try not to lose it silly.

As I said before, we are human and we are not perfect, we can be wrong. That is why government corruption occurs. First comes the desire for the power of money, taking the government to a timocracy. Then, it becomes an oligarchy, in which the rich begin to despise the poor and only want to have more and more wealth. When the people get tired of supporting this situation, the revolution occurs, and its triumph brings with it the beginning of democracy. This form of government for Plato is harmful because he considers that as people are free, they do what they want, and anyone can reach power because all are the same. According to the author, this excess of freedom will lead to tyranny

Meanwhile, it is commented that money generates more violence. I believe that what it generates is craving for more wealth, and the person would do anything to achieve it, at whatever it costs, so that violence or deception and scam is encouraged. In today’s society politicians have that image, for the numerous cases of corruption produced.

Book IX

Throughout this penultimate chapter, the figure of the supreme leader in a tyranny, the tyrant is commented.

These people are a clear example of what a person can influence the rest of the population in a situation of need for a true leader. At first, he pretends that he cares about the rest and that he is the only possible solution, but when he has enough power, he changes his attitude and imposes his ideology into the rest, and who does not seem well because he kills him or exiles him. That is why the tyrant is able to use any tool to get it.

The tyrant is described as a person to whom his soul is delivered to negative trends. In this way, the person feels inside his own, and as is the leader, he prisoners the rest of the population in turn.

From this, I know that the happiness of the ruler is found in the aristocrat or philosopher, for the reason he knows how to control himself. Also because thanks to his wisdom he has been able to enjoy the true pleasures of life, much more satisfactory than the sensitive pleasures of the physical body, which completes his soul thanks to the truth.

According to Plato, to achieve happiness, our souls must be contemplating the world of ideas. If not, what is believed to be happiness is a simple copy of the idea of happiness. In my opinion, I consider that in order to be happy in life, it is enough to be satisfied with yourself, with your attitude towards life, and to feel realized in your obligations, that you really like what you are doing. And if this is an imperfect copy of happiness, I do not care, because it is enough and who has to feel it is the person itself, not the rest of the people around you;although it is always good to convey your happiness to others.

Book x

In this last part of Plato’s most important work, Socrates says they are forming the most perfect city possible, and is happy for her.

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