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The reduction of inequality in society classes
It can be said that a populist state is less effective than a liberal state. This has been demonstrated throughout history, due to the way in which their economies are being guided, it can be the explanation of this. This suggests the places to which it could have been arrived early if this had been handled effectively from the beginning.
The myth of the increase in inequality: although it is true that in Peru we are currently with a percentage amount of poor of 21%, because of this it is believed, in some cases that inequality is abysmal in Peru, between rich and poor. But if we see the story inequality has been reducing. In 1986 the participation of the rich in the economy was 51; 4% and in 1996 under 42; 9% causing the poor to increase their participation in the same from 18; 8% to 24; 5%.
Now if we analyzed in the environment in which it occurred, it was that we passed from a government nationally closed to the market to another open to a liberal economy with liberal reforms. Subsequently, this liberal policy was followed by the State and now for the years 20002 and 2007, inequality continues to be reduced. For example, in the percentage variation of the monthly income of Lima households by socio -economic levels, it begins to have a noticeable change: while the income of the two highest sectors increased by 11.1 and 7.6 percent respectively, those of the three lowest sectors did so in 32.9, 46.9 and 46.2 percent respectively.
During this time it is no longer so much the influence by economic policies as to open ourselves to other markets, letting foreign companies, privatization in, but there is already a background credit issue, a construction sector that grows as well as the industry. This begins the microenterprises and at the same time the increase in their informality. However, if we see in some provinces the gap is still great what it means that the State is not fulfilling its integration function.
The title of the property: we have already said that the state period of the nineties brought with him liberal reforms for the country. Among them is the one that in the middle of this decade begins to take greater force. In 1992 the special project of land and rural cadastre (PETT) was created starting with a massive process of titling and registration of land.
This allows the integration of agricultural properties of the coast with the agro -export revolution as well as the mountains with the market.
Already for 2008 the PETT, already absorbed by the Commission for Formalization of Informal Property (COFOPRI), had entitled and registered one million 710 1000 properties, and between urban and rural it had been held holder, as of June 2008, 3 million 450 thousand properties, capitalizing about 14 million Peruvians.
However, this also brings with it the increase in mortgages, such as microenterprises that begin to ask for credits greater than 500.000 dollars doing what private financial institutions involved in granting credits to this market segment begin to take into account the land with the title of the property begin to be a guarantee of future payment to the future.
The deepening of the banking system and insurance: having a reform with the land degree the banks had to restructure their way in which they gave their loans. Until then I don’t know the microcredit. The reform consisted of incorporating into the popular sector into the market economy. It should be noted that the financial sector has been in the hands of statist governments with high and low peak cycles how, for example, to pass in 1943 from 20 percent to higher levels of financial intermediation (placements as a percentage of GDP) to a peak greater than 28percent in 1973 (adding private and promotion banking), it fell to abysmal levels close to 5 percent already in 1979, with the post Velasquista crisis, and in 1990, in the post alanista collapse, similar to those we had duringThe great crisis of the year 30.
For 2008 there is an interest on the part of the world -recognized banks to enter the country, the microcredit revolution went from 1,893 million soles in January 2001 to 8,114 million in May 2008.
She also falls the increase in microcredits through 44 institutions until 2008, such as the increase in municipal banks that increase to 13, with this there is also an increase in the insurance market.
The pension revolution begins in Chile, in the seventies and is imitated by Peru in 1993. While in that country the private pension system is the only existing one, in Peru he lives with the public system. As is known, the private differs that it is not a unique and indivisible fund (financed, for the most part, by the national budget) as the public, but is composed of the sum of individual capitalization funds: the contributions ofEach affiliate is incorporated into a personal capitalization account that generates interests under the investments of these funds in the financial and capital market. It has the advantage that the funds, far from disappearing in the hands of governments, as it used to occur with the public system, are invested and grow.
The emerging middle class
The medium emerging class arises from the opportunities that were given to popular and urban sectors with the arrival of privatizations, in addition to land degree by the now Cofopri and especially the expansion given to the microcredit. Until 2007, the separation of equality between rich and poor is differentiated or grouped into 4 sectors, descending, B, C, and D and D and D. In Lima, for example, sectors B and C agglutinated 53.2 percent of the capital population, when in 2003 they only joined 42.9, reflecting the growth of the emerging middle class.
Emerging classes are characterized by being concerned with wanting to rise continuously and formally, even if it is expensive. Another characteristic is that they are more consumers because what they want to have a stable life. These groups are in specific parts or areas and is the function of the companies identify them.
By 2002 to 2008 Mega Plaza was built by the Wiser Group because they identified in the northern part of Lima as the olive trees of an aspirational, modern sector that saw the mall as an establishment that allows consumption needs to be met and not onlyThis, but also as a place that can be used for entertainment and pleasure. The Mega Plaza Norte has become a concentration center of different social classes. This gives green light to other companies such as that of the Wong brothers begin to invest in North Lima, and there are others what they see as an opportunity not only of commerce but also educational, such as in the creation of institutes such as Zenati,The British Institute, and Universities how the Catholic University gives Sapentae, or the César Vallejo de Trujillo University.
Another sector that begins to emerge in the city of Lima, and specifically in victory, is the textile sector in the Gamarra shopping center. This is a symbol of provincial migration to the capital of our country. This place is a large textile cluster since here until 2001 it was made up of 17.000 entrepreneurs, who gave employment at 153.000 workers, receiving about 100.000 people, producing 60 percent of textiles and clothing destined for the market towards the interior of the country. It also exported in order of magnitude to the popular markets of Venezuela Ecuador Bolivia and Chile. These are the places where great effort must be made and focus on our economy so that the inequalities still exist in our country can be reduced.