The Problem Of Migration Between The United States And Mexico

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The problem of migration between the United States and Mexico


In the present investigation, the phenomenon called: migration is intended to be known in a general way.

The causes of origin are considered in the present work, as well as the factors that influenced the emergence of this. Although the countries that receive immigrants consider them a problem, this research will analyze the benefits that this phenomenon grants, both to destination nations and their countries of origin.

The study of migration not only covers the economic factor, but the sociological and psychological.

Immigration, it is not a problem is a situation that we must understand and attend; Today, international organizations recognize this as an element of people’s law, so proposals and initiatives are studied, being a priority issue to Novel International, being a situation that increases as a consequence of the so -called globalization, which which He has evidenced a strong gap between people with great purchasing power and those who lack the economically minimal to survive.

The growth of societies in an inequitable way is one of the constants in this phenomenon. Coupled with internal social agitations that have as a famine and lack of security.

As legal factors of immigration, we have temporary work programs in developed countries, who offer work in primary activities to people from developing countries, who take advantage of these opportunities to stay to live in these, achieving citizenship, or illegally.

This phenomenon being impossible to eradicate, we will analyze the support programs that the United States now uses for the repatriation of illegal migrants to their countries of origin, carrying out these actions respecting, now, the rights of people. This arises as a consequence of the bad practices used by this country at first, reaching the violation of the rights of minors, which have been imprisoned.

Migration is currently increasing and there is no factor that indicates that this trend will end or stop, so pretending to eradicate it is a sterile initiative and without option to obtain a positive result.

It can be regulated on this issue in order to reduce migration percentages, as well as paying attention to developing countries supporting and providing those necessary tools to achieve economic growth in these countries, giving security to its citizens, avoiding the so -called obligatory migration, subsisting only and by agreement, legal migration.

This analysis presents the point of view of both migrant countries, and those that are considered the most migrants send. Within each point analyzed, it cannot be denied that the factor that mostly influence this phenomenon is the inequality in the economic and political regimes of developing countries.


Migration is conceptualized as a social phenomenon, which implies the displacement of people between different territories, countries, states, communities, moving their usual space of residence to another, this for economic, social, cultural reasons, etc.

Since remote times, the man was described as a politikón zoon (Aristotle book 1, politics) that is, sociable by nature, unable to live isolated from his peers, seeking to have survival conditions capable of satisfying his primary needs, and Subsequently those that provide security and pleasure. Therefore, from the birth of the first societies, the predisposition of these is known to move from their original establishment places, for climatological reasons, food shortages, safety, etc. Until they were established in places where they found the ideal means to develop a full life, with resources and conditions that guaranteed their personal and community satisfaction.

Subsequently, with the arrival of social and productive development, the displacement of people begins for reasons of inequality, this, as a consequence of the emergence of politics, that which put their social stability, their integrity at risk, or the one that did not give it opportunities and development within the community to which it belonged.

In this case, in our country we have the pre -Columbian peoples, who for famines and wars moved to safe places within the territory.

As societies grow the displacement of people translates into the search for better economic conditions and refuge for political reasons. Organizations in charge of the study and analysis of this phenomenon, mention as the main detonator of the growth of people who emigrate from their countries, the so -called “globalization”, that which results in disproportionate economic growth within a society or country; provoking extremely unequal conditions among people.

Migration and social movements

With the evolution of man’s thinking regarding human rights, equality and respect for people, the social movements of the defense of these begin. Taking the first step to defend and protect the nascent human rights of the displaced, the now called migrants.

From World War II, the world begins to live a disproportionate immigration crisis, which results in the creation of international organism whose work is to protect the rights of these people.

Those who suffered wars within their countries, resulted in the loss of economic and social development, so they were forced to emigrate to other countries. The vast majority as refugees, creating with this that those family or friends who failed to leave their countries will try to follow them, forming a new immigrant society.

The International Organization for Migration (IIM) in 2015 in the framework of Geneve Challenge through its general director William Lacy Swing, he declared at the Institute of Postgraduate International and Development Postgraduate, in Geneva: “Today more people are more people They have been forced to emigrate, that at any other time since World War II, that is, 60 million, of which one third is refugees, according to the 1951 Geneva Convention; And two thirds are internal displaced ”(" IOM, Lacy Swing, migrations in a world of disorder, 2015 ").

In recent years, migration has had a considerable increase, this because the greater the economic development of a country, the better standard of living its citizens, being the focus of those who within their countries do not have stability and opportunities, So, to greater development, greater migration.

Migration in Mexico

Migration in our country is a phenomenon that begins with internal migration, that is, displacement of families or the one who has the obligation to sustain these. It begins from rural areas to urban, from large haciendas to houses in the capital of the country. Resulting in a capital formed of people from various states of the country. However, the foregoing, the migration that has a greater "tradition", is the related between Mexico and the United States of America.

Before the sale of Texas, New Mexico, the table; These regions were occupied by Mexicans, so, since there was the separation of this territory, families from two countries, some of the United States and others from Mexico, so it became common to pass from one country to another, leaving the people to live in the United States, since it offered them better development and economic stability.

Nelly Salgado de Synder establishes that: “The emigration of Mexicans to the United States, from the beginning had its own and different characteristics to all others, due to two main reasons: the neighborhood with the United States and that the states of the Mexican southwest belonged to our Country ”(Salgado, 2002, P-90).

Within this situation she establishes that both World War I, and the Mexican Revolution, were detonating migration factors in Mexico and Europe. Due to the lousy economic and social condition in which the countries that suffered such social conflicts sank.

In particular, during World War I, the United States was in need of hiring Mexican immigrants, so that they will carry out work in the countryside, and where appropriate they offered cheap labor (first brazier program). Since their men were enrolled in the military ranks, so they were in combat, having neglected the field, reducing their production.

Situation that was repeated in World War II, however, the flow of migrants increased, getting to work Mexicans not registered in the temporal program of braziers; coupled with the so -called great depression suffered by the United States.

A high repatriation of Mexicans began by the United States, so Mexico and the United States decide to sign the “BRACEROS” program. However, this program was in force until 1964, this, because unauthorized migrants exceeded those received in this. ("Mexico at the crossroads: internal and international implications, 2015, P-8"). From this phenomenon, new categories of migration emerge: the permanent or definitive and temporary or circular (“CESOP, migration from Mexicans to the United States, 2003, P-7”).

This phenomenon must not only be understood from the transfer of a family or a set of people from the same community or belonging to a bloodline, since most migrants move alone, in the company of strangers, with the risk with the risk to die in the attempt to enter the destination country, or to be deported. Being easy prey of the so -called "polleros" (set of individuals who traffic with people, transferring them illegally from one country to another, for the collection of an economic amount, being often stolen by these, or kidnapped. Its arrival being impossible to the desired country).

Following the emergence of these people traffic networks, organizations in charge of ensuring human rights (United Nations Organization), through conferences and symposia, the creation of laws and treaties responsible for protecting migrants begins.

The UN, recently stated through the general director of the FAO José Graziano da Silva that: “Migration must be a voluntary act and not a forced act. Poverty, hunger, climate change, insecurity-that is, severe underdevelopment-create a perfect storm in which thousands of people only see one way out: emigrate.

The background solution to obligatory migration is development

Although, it has been mentioned (in the last year) that migration has become a problem between countries such as: Mexico and the United States, it is also that, remittances that come from immigrants support Mexico’s internal support; According to World Bank figures in 2019, remittances increased in the Netherlands (Europe) USD 529 billion in 2018 an increase of 9.6% with respect to the previous 2017 record of USD 483 billion, Mexico is the second country to receive the largest amount of remittances being the figure of USD 36 billion (World Bank, “Unprecedented remedie , 2019).

In addition to the increase in remittances, the UN in 2018, managed to sign a pact in this matter, called: "Pact for safe, orderly and regular migration". Which consists of 23 objectives, among which are: human trafficking, the separation of families, respect for the human rights of migrants.

Migration is a phenomenon that today will continue to increase, due to the lack of conditions and development of people within their country of origin.

According to the National Council to prevent "Conapred" discrimination, the migratory flow of Mexico to the United States of America is negative, waiting for a figure of 308 thousand people in 2019, a figure that will increase, hoping to reach 326 thousand in the year 2030. There are 12 million Mexicans, living abroad, since 97% live in the United States. Having as a genre of migrants mostly men being 8 out of 10, in contrast to women being these 9 out of 10.

Due to this increase in the United States migratory flow, this country hardened immigration policies, even if they are violations of migrants’ rights, in general.

The mass deportations by this country began to increase, carrying out aggressively, so the international agenda began to give the importance to this issue. Giving as a consequence that at the beginning of the Fura year implemented by the United States a protocol for protection of migrants (MPP), through which, those migrants who have entered this country illegally, would be summoned to appear before a migratory court, which will grant a reasonable time to voluntarily abandon the United States or, in the event that the Court considers the migrant arguments valid, they could receive the asylum status by legally remaining legally.

On this issue, the National Human Rights Commission is the institution in charge of caring for and protecting the rights of migrants, whether they come from Central America, such as Guatemala, Venezuela, Belize, etc.; as of the fellow citizens who are deported.

While Mexico has a high percentage of migration to the northern country, we must recognize, which has also become the bridge so that central and South American migrants try to reach the United States. So this phenomenon has been tried through the Migration Policy Unit (UPM) of the National Migration Institute. In order to protect the rights of these people, since they are easy for drug trafficking groups, who assault or kidnap them. So Mexico has become the focus of international organizations on this matter, reaching recommendations by these.

We must understand that this more than complex issue is extensive, in addition to being almost impossible its eradication, so you must work to seek regularization of this, without affecting the rights of migrants, making them part of the development and legislation of the country to which they emigrate, avoiding the criminalization of these.

The arrival of these people does not imply the loss of work sources, since they have existed, without being used by citizens or do not find in these activities a sufficient source of economic income to meet their needs. Effective regulation is the principle of legal migration.


Migration must understand and identify them not as a problem which is insisting on solving, they are realities of which we must occupy, legislate and administer, not only nationally but internationally, adhering to all those agencies that provide us with the necessary tools To manage this phenomenon.

While governments with their policies do not give development and security to citizens, they must be aware that immigration will continue to increase, and even if this is impossible, the benefit that this phenomenon confers both the families of the families of the families of the Immigrants as the country of origin.

In addition to the above, it cannot be denied that migration has helped the population and repopulation of different countries or states. The clearest example is in the United States of America, whose population is mostly immigrant, Mexico City is composed of internal immigrants having extensive cultural diversity; In Europe we have England, which due to the invasion of territories and the independence of these has immigrants from different regions; Phenomenon that has made these countries: Economic Development Centers.

Migration is a consequence of the lack of opportunities within a country or region, being responsible for this its own leaders, making their members (citizens), so that agreements must be supported and respecting agreements that, aimed to the rights of immigrants, making them co -responsible for their actions, incorporating immigrants into local legislation, in order to regularize their acts and activities; Every right entails obligations, only in a sphere of respect and legality, relations are cope with.

While there are nations with little or null social and economic development, migration will continue to increase in those countries that offer better living standards.

It is not about eradicating, but about having legal control, capable of understanding this phenomenon as part of the nature of man, a natural part of living a better life for him and his family.

The man emigrates out of necessity, sometimes for the opportunity of work that is presented and takes the opportunity to continue enjoying better conditions; By study or refuge.


  • Center for International Studies, Senate of the Republic LXIII Legislature, ”Mexico at the crossroads: implications of migration”, 2015, P-8.
  • Center for Social Studies and Public Opinion, Chamber of Deputies, “Migration from Mexicans to the United States”, 2003, P-7.
  • Muñoz de Alba Medrano, Marcia, Compiler, “Select Health and Law Themes”, Synder Nelly’s Salgado Participation, UNAM Legal Research Institute, 2002, P-90.
  • UN news, July 2, 2019.
  • Ollopei, José Juan, compiler, “Studies around migration”, UNAM, Institute for Legal Research, Series: Legal Studies, number 16, 2001.
  • UN agency, in charge of the study and eradication of hunger.
  • United Nations Organization of UN, Department of Economic and Social Affairs 2018.

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