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The other war: replacement of pesticides in Ecuador
In order to reach food sovereignty and acquire the activities of the field as a business, they have disturbed and almost fully consummated traditional agriculture, creating agricultural business with the implement of pesticides, fertilizers and monocultures, among other products, wherefood production has been capitalized and generating negative effects and persists over time. In the middle of the postwar period he ended the arms economy, for the despair of the merchants who began to worry about their capital about the elimination of their sources of income. Upon entering a period of peace they needed a new clientele, starting the elaboration of pesticides and fertilizers derived from the weapons that remained in waste causing the green revolution.
The world warns about the danger of pesticides
Capitalism is the precursor to use pesticides. Agro business was thought as a source of income. Environmental and social damages have shown that this economic principle is present negatively affecting people who live in rural communities and their environment as their resources, generating bio accumulation of xenibiotic substances in the foods that until now persist. So far food production has gradually decreased by the use of synthetic compounds used in agriculture.
The ecological niche is of vital importance because it is the function that each species fulfills in the ecosystem, due to climate change these functions have been altered to such an extent that some ecosystems break its life cycle, and generating that organisms adapt to these conditions,acting by resileness nature returns to its state. For human activity in the formation of agriculture until a certain time where the surrounding ecosystem components interact with that area, forming agroecosystems being an ancient process that remains over time.
Industrialization has generated environmental damage to these agroecosystems, ending its biological control where it kept in intervention to the pests that have arisen so far due to the elimination of these controls that were previously considered as ecological niches. The appearance of these pests has generated diseases in crops, causing losses in food security. These factors and others such as monoculture have promoted propagations.
The pests are adapting and resistance against pesticides, generating that the peasants increase the dose of these synthetic compounds causing greater persistence in their toxicity. The alteration of the trophic chain, the destruction of some components is raised as part of the toxic spiral where the greatest beneficiaries are the great capitalist powers.
It is reported that in Ecuador previously, the implementation of pesticides in the banana crops was 15 to 20 repetitions of annual fumigations, now it is known that there are 44 repetitions/year.
The replacement of crops adapted with resistance of those pathogens, has caused the genetic heritage that was maintained for thousands of years in traditional crops. In Ecuador there is an example of this activity in the cultivation of potatoes in the Carchi, where its enemy the potato moth adapted forming as a plague with a strong severity, resistant to most insecticides. Large multinational.
The pesticides have a strong presence not only in the ground of the crop, but also in the other resources, present in rivers, groundwater, in the air, among other parts altering biodiversity and biogeochemical cycles. Bioconcentration is the process where the toxic substances of the pesticides are maintained and degraded by physical mechanism, and accumulates in the organs or fatty tissues of the organisms of the trophic chain.
Microorganisms perform functions that are very important for soils to fulfill as a brain life support, set more nitrogens than nitrogen fertilizers, such as a free ecosystem interact the components into the substrate.
The pesticides end with the most important support of the planet, the substantial component pollinators so that the vegetation remains alive. The capture of CO2 by microorganisms by decomposing the leaf litter is vitally important, to reduce the emission of greenhouse gas towards the environment.
People who work in crops are the most likely to suffer from poisoning, because they fumigate the sowings and are more exposed to pesticides, through action by inhalation, they can also occur for a certain time, generating diseasesserious.
Although the woman does not dedicate itself to agriculture, it is more susceptible and easy that they are more exposed to pesticides, it may be because they perform family activities and are close to an agricultural field, for collecting fumigated foods or when it takes food to relatives who are workingIn crops.
Another susceptible source is when preparations for mixtures of poisons and chip washing are done in home laundues polluting food, clothing or other materials that are close, giving risk to the whole family but especially young children. Many pregnant women when exposed briefly but significantly to pesticides have boarding or their offspring is born with serious health problems such as cancer appearance, malformations, which goes from generation to generation and sometimes they have no cure.
The Convention on all forms of discrimination against women (Nnuu, 1981) consecrates the reproductive rights of women, the right to health care and to ensure that peasants can enjoy adequate living conditions. Children are very imperative and curious sometimes because they are not aware of them come to take pesticides, they play with toxic or infected instruments, etc. Elsa Nivia emphasizes that children are more likely to be exposed with less amount than adults, their organs and immune system are in a state of growth and development, so I have difficult to detoxify them.
Pesticides in the world
Six multinationals in 2015 controlled 75% of hybrid and pesticide seeds, but companies merged to control the market. Chemchina is temporarily leader for the sale of pesticides, he achieved this feat with a capital of 43 billion dollars, the reason was because they wanted to ensure food to its population. China has become the largest glyphosate producer world.
In 50 years 2 was used.6 million tons of pesticides per year causing a drastic increase. Due to the high use of pesticides sometimes it is decided to develop transgenic crops but this work costs around $ 136 million only to create a new crop and 256 million to place a single new active ingredient. That is why it focuses on crops that are more important worldwide such as cotton, canola, soy and corn.
When many problems occur due to the use of highly toxic pesticides many organizations, countries, communities, etc. They question the use of these assets. More and more people are added to this cause, wanting to prohibit the use of carcinogenic action pesticides, gene mutates, endocrine disturbances. Many organizations are added to eradicate the application of toxic pesticides, so that it does not increase terminal diseases, to protect the ozone layer.
The International Pesticide Network Network (PAN) questions pesticides by the toxicity levels that arises in the human and environmental being, this organization wants to implement safer pest management systems to be socially and economically viable.
Pesticides in Ecuador
Although Ecuador is a small country, the issue of pesticides is worrying, its use is increasingThese and other concerns should try to change the way of thinking and make them see the reality of the situation to peasants, farmers and consumerist people.
In the Ecuadorian National Constitution it is recognized that nature has rights, however the Constitution contradicts the plans, projects and ventures of farmers, peasants or agricultural companies. The new productive matrix (NMP) seeks to expand international production and export products, but there is a big problem that is the inadequate use of pesticides therefore the products do not meet the necessary parameters to be export products. The high toxic doses of pesticides used by Ecuadorian markets and the minimum attention they put on toxicity, is the reason why farmers and peasants do not stop using these pesticides.
The use of pesticides continues to increase although agroecology and organic products continue to ascend is not enough to rival pesticides, although the issue of pesticides has been widely exhibited many agrochemicals consider that they are necessary for development, for this reason in Ecuadorpesticides continue to grow.
Colombia is considered the largest consumerist of pesticides, surpassing Bolivia and Peru
Peru does not need to use pesticides because it is just beginning in the agricultural area for exports. In Bolivia for 2005 the first transgenic crops were entered, it began to produce transgenic soybeans but also had to increase the use of pesticides. The pesticides found in Ecuador come from 48 countries, of which 5 countries produce 70% of important pesticides, Ecuador does not produce national pesticides only buy the products wholesale, usually buy those that are in group III andIV that are the least dangerous according to the taxonomic classification.
On May 14, 2010 Ecuador made a great decision that was to cancel and prohibit the entry of pesticides with IA and IB category. There are 848 pesticides, 3 are type IA, 10 are type IB, 157 are type II, 263 with type III and 415 are type IV.
Commercial pesticides in Ecuador
Ecuador wants to be in a globalized medium and homogenizing food consumption, this implies that traditional food has been a bit affected because it has moved slightly and as a consequence it depends on limited foods.
The Ecuadorian population in recent years has been dedicated to large cities, there is an informative vacuum over the safe, sovereign, healthy and free of poison.
The article talks about the demands of agri -food capital that is nothing more than food becomes subject to cosmetic norms and forget about the nutritional aspects that must be met, when they go through these norms many foods are discarded by not presenting the characteristicsnecessary and are wasted. The use of pesticides set with a conventional method makes 87% of minerals decreases compared to organic products, ecological foods are more nutritious compared to conventional ones, they can contain up to 60% more antioxidants.
While it is true not all the fault are of the producers, sometimes the economic conditions, lack of credit are a large impediment threshold, sometimes they do not have lands and water supply for cultivars, these are one of the few examples for whichSometimes peasants and producers opt for the most economical that is intensive use of pesticides.
American laws on the control and use of pesticides have controlled the manufacturing, sale and storage sector.
Province poison levels.
In the coastal region for having large extensions of crops, air fumigation practice is used, a practice that is optimal at the time but harmful to time, between serious problems we find poisoning for not using proper equipment, poisoning by contaminated foods, contact burns, poor formation of children if mothers is in a state of gestation, prone to witnessing cancer, etc.
Another problem is the presence of populated places where there are schools, nurses, hospitals, shops, markets, places that are just 10 meters or less of the banana crop.
In Ecuador, 7 out of 10 producers perform the washing and cleaning practices of the equipment used, the other 3 set the contaminated water in the soil, rivers or pumps, it seems little but this must be added the fact that there are thousands ofProducers who are dedicated to agriculture, in addition almost 50% burn open sky containers and only 15% deliver them to collection centers and commercial houses.
In 2015, 178.245 agricultural hectares were lost by natural and anthropic factors, giving a 31.6% growth due to the use of pesticides, by 2019 this cup must be growing and future generations are expected to mitigate this problem and give solutions to reduceThe use of pesticides.
The basic family basket and highly dangerous pesticides in Ecuador
Of the 428 active ingredients, there are 108 highly dangerous pesticides that are used by Ecuadorian producers and are manipulated with greater force in 20 crops. Insecticides are the most used with 56% are also the most toxic, then there are fungicides with 24% and finally herbicides with 20%.
If active ingredients are used excessively, insects can develop resistance, then you should use another more powerful insecticide or increase doses but this causes greater pollutants in crops:
- Paraquat: Toxic herbicide, this chemical cause damage causing time later of Parkinson’s disease, also causes malfunction within the nervous system. It has been prohibited in some countries, within Ecuador it is used in cultures of: pineapple, cocoa, rice, potato, bananas and corn, the most commercialized is gramoxone.
- Glyphosate: It is a herbicide that is found in category 2a, it is carcinogen, produces abortions, premature births and mutations, in Ecuador it is used in: pineapple sugar cane, potatoes, beans and banana, it is the most common in transgenics in transgenics.
- Mancozeb: Fumigations with Mancozeb in the banana sector were suspended, there are 117 products containing Mancozeb, 89 are for potato cultivation and 15 for banana plantations.
Ecuador is far from using agrochemicals because companies have the motto of “responsible and insurance of pesticides” however it is not true, every year there are cases related to being exposed to pesticides, insecticides and fungicides.
Even if you want to interrupt the sale and withdraw these products, it will only be achieved when something highly catastrophic happens within the country. In order not to depend on pesticides, it must be started by farmers giving expose the misuse that is given and the future problems that are causing, then continue with commercials and finally with agro -industrial companies. Causing strong environmental and human impact, the suspension of aerial fumigations is necessary.
It is wanted to implement bioinsumos by building 5 plants supplying the national market, for this the issue of beneficial microorganisms must be conversed and investigated to reduce the use of fungicides, to increase fertility in the soil, increase cultivated yields, cause a healthy production,Restore the environment and compensate for the Ecuadorian economy without using agrochemicals.
It is time that the government together with universities and academic centers, promote awareness and research related to the damages caused by pesticides in a short, medium and long time. In addition, be able to create, prevention and control cultural problems with a new totally ecological, biological or microbiological product.
It is time for consumers to realize and that they do not buy a commercial stereotype leaving aside products that are in plastics, or without the crops of crops. In addition to producing healthy foods you must have a healthy and durable balanced agricultural system.
- Orange Márquez, Alejandro;. (2017). The other war: the situation of pesticides in Ecuador. Obtained from the other war: the situation of pesticides in Ecuador: http: // www.Swissoid.org.EC/SITES/DEFAULT/FILES/images/pesticides_web.PDF