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The origin of the family, private property and the State
The book The origin of the family Private property and the state of Fréngéric Engel consists of 3 parts In the first part we will put the evolution of man in society and his passage of savagery barbarism and subsequently civilization performing an analysis of the most aspectsImportant in each of these stages The second part raises the evolution of the family and its relationship with the previous process from the first known forms of family organization to the modern concept that we know of this finally explains the concept of origin of the gensand the characteristics of this in the most relevant social forms such as the Greek the Athenian and the Romans among others were analyzed among others
How they evolved the forms of social organization that we know today well to respond to this she raised a concept that has called prehistoric stages of culture, for this divides social evolution into three stages that are savagery barbarism and each of these presents3 stadiums are lower middle stadium and upper stadium which have representative characteristics and finally civilization being the cusp of the social organization regarding savagery are lower the author proposes that the only way for man to survive in the middle of the beasts,He had to climb the trees of which he in turn obtained his main source of food also states that the primitive human still in a state of savagery I need some form of articulated language to communicate with his fellow men. Already in the middle stadium the fire appears which provides coat changed the night conditions and becomes a way to scare away some animals appears the spear and therefore the fishing which brings the mobilization process along the rivers and theCoasts, the upper stadium of savagery is characterized by the appearance of hunting utensils and domestic utensils the following link in barbarism and is characterized by the appearance of mud pottery, breeding and domestication of animals and the cultivation of plants already inThe middle stadium occurs differentiated processes in the eastern hemisphere, for example, in animal grazing while the cultivation of vegetables and construction in a material called adobe began in the western hemisphere. The upper stadium of barbarism stands out for the appearance of the iron ore and its foundry processes for the elaboration of various objects here we find the first indications of an alphabetical writing and agriculture and livestock are developed, since the next step isVery important, since we can observe that each stage of the human being has been articulating their most significant advances as if he saw them inherited from their ancestors and now that civilization passes, these stands out for the modernization of the processes of added to theEvolution and the appearance of a social organization, the highlights of this stage was the standardization of livestock agriculture techniques and the appearance of slavery the latter very important to remember it because it begins to mark the differences between human beings.
Now the second phase of our position begins and consists of explaining how the family evolves throughout history based on the process of previous evolution taking into account that for the population to grow, human beings should have reproduced and somehow began to take shapeWhat we know today as a family. The family is the active element of society and is never stagnant, it can be considered that it has a lower form and a superior established by the very evolution of the society to which in turn establishes kinship systems, you are with formations addresses them we will do inIt tells the types of marital union that could arise in each of the links that we analyze previously and this analysis will help us establish the different types of family that could be formed, that is not our speculation, because everything is based onThe author’s propositions and these are based on some research study. Engels states that derived from savagery could arise a type of union that only took into account sex based on the sole intention of procreating the species and such union could give rise to a type of family to which he defined as a family with blood which parents which parentsand mothers brothers and sisters grandparents and grandmothers could join together forming a family bond of consanguinity which is why he granted this name expelling the son sex trade in a more advanced stage of savagery could cause marriages groups giving rise to anotherDifferent family of family called punalua of which the author expresses that he is still in force in Polynesia and in some parts of Hawaii and this family is characterized by having an order in which husbands are shared by a group of near or distant sistersless the sisters themselves establish the descendants by maternal line and the institution of the gens is established as the basis of the social order. In barbarism we find a more evolved society which establishes the conjugal union as one of its customs, but polygamy is still occasional, the author states that from there a type of family called syndicities called syndicism is derived from which is characterized by strict fidelity byPart of the woman and the idea that the children belong to the mother and finally in civilization we find the best known marital union at present perhaps the monogamic marriage that is also the most accepted and from there emerges the monogamous family that is characterizedFor the predominance of man for inheritance paternity and normally only man can break ties and be unfaithful. Well, here we have seen how society evolves and how this evolution gave rise to various forms of unions between human beings and of course to various families until we reach the family that we currently know
Now, when the family is formed, it must be established in special conditions for its development, we begin to structure the concept of property and from the Punalua family began to talk about gens. The term gens comes from the Romans and defines the set of families in ancient Rome that descended from a common ancestor and carried the same name and therefore we can understand it as an offspring that in an organized way he intended with him over time to take noOnly blood ties but also said position and properties and here the concept of private property is already established and then the characteristics of these gens in some of the societies present at the time, for example, we have the iroquesa gens where the author says thatThe American form is the original form of the Gens, it states that its power was undone by the low greed and the theft of common property and after this inaugurated the new civilized society on the other hand we have the Greek Gens in its conformation the permanent authority the permanent authorityIt was the council, the assembly of the town called Ágora and had a military chief known as Basileos. We continue with the Athenian Gens the Athenian Constitution was based on the people’s assembly. Basileo People’s Council, the soil was already distributed and private property in what corresponds to commercial production and merchandise trade. We also have the gens and the conformation of the State in Rome that presented the following characteristics in the first place the hereditary and reciprocal right of the Gentiles, the position of a common place of grave, the common religious solemnity, the obligation of not marrying within theGens, the positions are obtained by choice and there is an authentic state constitution based on the territorial division and the difference in fortune. Finally, and not least was the gens among the Celts and the Germans who presented important features such as: women had a vote in the assemblies of the town, temporary marriages were in use and in case of separation the woman great privileges were grantedas the payment of their domestic services and inheritance did not distinction between legitimate and natural children. The different people have already instituted and the private property was established a society could be made up of several gens that were constituted by a certain number of families each with their established and possessed principles and codes and codes of their properties and Engels manifest that from the differences generated between these gens due to various religious or simply moral social factors, a struggle originated, which defined as sterile and in which the structure of the same gens was at stake and even private property then became necessary the institution of an entity contradictoryly superior to society which will regulate and function as an authority over society and this is what makes it contradictory to think that it cannot be superior to human beings something established by themselves, however so The state that becomes a social community is born formed by several sciences such as U na common political organization and a territory of organs of own governments that is sovereign and politically independent of other communities and that its purpose establishes the coexistence between the different gens.