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The leadership concept
The definition of leadership is very wide and allows people who are performing this role projecting, implementing work groups, being visionaries, being a model to follow and empower their work.
The leader of an institution must carry out quality management, instill the absolute empowerment in each member of their work team, plan excellence and quality, in addition to maintaining the prestige of the educational institution, managing inclusion and delegating functions to your teamcollaborator, not forgetting the needs of the teaching staff to reach compliance with the established goals.
However, problems of problems must occur optimally and quickly to satisfy the perspectives that students, teachers, parents and society in general have.
In this way, a leader when doing the feedback must recognize and celebrate all the achievements achieved in the fulfillment of the objectives and goals, always mentioning the constant innovation, participatory vision of their followers and the correction of errors to maintain quality management
Leadership is a function that can be exercised by any member of the organization. This leads to use strategies or methods that achieve a consensus for the good of the organization, in addition to maintaining work dynamics to obtain a sustained learning and development culture that society needs so much.
Therefore, institution leaders have countless characteristics to perform effective work (Murillo Torrecilla, 2006), for their good development must cultivate the excellent interpersonal relationships, recognize the merit of each person, promote the value of loyalty, transmitsecurity and enthusiasm, achieve general and individual objectives, among others.
However, the leader can be: visionary (he prepares his own vision of the institution he directs), charismatic (manifests the vision where he wants to reach his style), coach (he is a person who trains the members of his work team without usingpermanent controls), ethical (uses corporate values in its practice), lateral (develops from the skills of the working group), 360 ° leader (directs the organization from any, sustainable job (integrator and belongs to current globalization).
Therefore, the leader must be accepted to the requirements of the entire educational community, determining without a doubt that every leader must possess positivism (leading – teacher – teacher), be cognitive (focus through vision, mission, fulfillment of objectives), present stimulipermanent to teachers, care (creativity, empathy for conflict resolution, be assertive and meet the teacher and the institution to maintain the quality in teaching students learning of the students.
Therefore the leader who organizes the work environment and directs a work team proceeds according to three forms (Zuzama Cobas, 2014), three styles that are: the authoritarian style (imposes the authority), the democratic style (instill and expect theActive participation of each member of their work team), and the Laissez-Faire style (allows each member to freely act that is what you want at every moment).
This clearly demonstrates that the best style of leadership is democratic since the working group obtains better performance and greater effectiveness in the culmination of entrusted work marking in this way a big difference in relation to the rest of groups with authoritarian leaders orLaisser- Faire.
When talking about leadership in an educational institution, the manager must use the leadership style that best suits his profile and the needs present by the school context are the contributions of Leihtwood, Begley & Cousin (1990) cited by (Murillo Torrecilla, 2006), where they establish four leadership styles: style A, style B, style C and style D.
Each style assumes its own characteristics and reactions of each school leader, style A focuses on cooperation, good relationships and collaborative work. In style B the leader is projected to obtain positive results in the well -being and performance of the students. While in style C they prepare to meet programs, teaching improvements.
Likewise, the standards prepared by Interstate School Leadership Licen-Sure Consortium (ISLLC) are distributed in six areas of knowledge, disposition and functions (Peniche Cetzal, Ramón Mac, & Rosario Muñoz, 2018): The projection of learning, Teaching Culture-Learning, way to carry out learning, relationship with the community that is learning, implementation of equal values, integrity during learn, use of the economic, social part and culture of the learning context
Also educational leaders are prepared to effectively face the challenges and opportunities of daily and future work, taking into account that education, schools and society are in continuous transformation.
Currently, each leader of the educational institutions must comply with the standards such as vision, culture, community relations, absolute integrity and practice various policies and values that will help cultivate new empowered leaders of their functions, responsibilities and committed to all the Educational community in general, focused on the implementation of new standards to practice participatory leadership, inclusive where the commitment is of all teachers making them co -responsible for each of the activities carried out.
We know that every leader must be trained and updated sufficiently according to the needs or requirements generated by the management position, maintain a relationship to focus on institutional development, teaching professionalization, compliance with vision, mission, objectives; Execution of the Code of Coexistence and the Institutional PEI, through the execution of the guidelines of each of the roles that teachers, students, administrative staff and community in general, in this way, teachers are trainers and students receive learning significant.
Leadership presents a marked impact on the development of students learning students, to obtain an improvement in them, it is found that vulnerable and poverty areas are the ones that have the greatest risk and making it clear that good school administration leads to success to successand continuous improvement of the same.
At the same time, the managerial leader must: Foster and participate in the learning or training of teachers, plan, coordinate and evaluate teaching and curriculum, establish goals and expectations, strategically use resources and ensure an orderly support environment.
The impact of leadership, understands that the results of the students (cognitive, affective, social behavior), depend, first, as a mediating variable, on the conditions of the teaching work, whose impact on learning will be moderated by other variables such asThe cultural capital of the family or the organizational context. In school leadership, the student will depend a lot on motivation and commitment, the capacity and working conditions available to the teacher to obtain proper use of teaching learning, using different methodologies, strategies, change of practices in the classroom focused on theconstant learning of students who are under their responsibility and thus meet the established objectives.
Particularly in the integrated model of directive competencies, the profiles are built based on these behavioral (transverse) and functional competencies (techniques). The former relate to labor behaviors and attitudes (maintain work teams). Functional competences are those that refer to knowledge, skill, skill that must be mobilized to achieve the objectives (carry out effective classes).
The process of integration of the competency model is very favorable for educational institutions that require a leader who is fully empowered from their role, always applying behavioral skills are a set of determining factors where it will reflect ethics, professional development guidance, responsibility, responsibility,negotiation, ability to resolve conflicts, assertiveness, initiative and innovation.