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THE EVOLUTION OF WOMEN IN THE LABOR MARKET
At the time of the industrial revolution, women already contributed to the family’s economy, whether doing homework (cleaning, scrubing, making food), textile tasks (sewing) and working in the mines. At this time she was considered politically unable to. With the many and long hours of work, women had less time to be able to be busy with their children, since there were no disease or maternity permits; Thus family life was very affected. In the twentieth century and in contrast to the increasingly egalitarian legislation of the times prior to the civil war, the regime headed by Franco developed legislation that excluded women from numerous activities, the postwar misery was especially primed with women. Franco will assume the Nazi children, home, church (Kinder, Küche, Kirche) that reminded the traditional ideology so much. The antifminist attitude of her makes him see the woman as an intellectually inferior spiritual being, that she lacked a social and political dimension and that she had an unequivocal vocation of housewife and mother.
Under this context we observe an increase in marriage crises, together with the creation of the new union models and in a decrease in birth. This is why and where we can place the problem of the conciliation of women in family and work life.
Evolution and study of labor confrontation
In ancient Spain they were societies where kinship relations were the most important element of socia organization, which women transmitted inheritance, and they worked the land, participated in other productive and ritual activities of the community, which placed them in A good position, which, although it is true, cannot be said of matriarchy, a society with patriarchal structure cannot be recognized. Patriarchal positions are slowly strengthened, especially through activities where there was no participation of women: war, with all their symbolism, social projection and political significance. Women, although they related to war, were almost always as passive subjects, either as an object of exchange or reward for the victors, such as the consequent suffering of the same.
After this brief parenthesis, we can continue saying that, in the various societies, beyond their differences, there is the separation of tasks attributed to men and women, it is a constant. Of course, this separation can be more or less rigid, according to the characteristics of the society in question, since both economic and technological factors influence. This sexual division of labor, has common characteristics, which we also find in the various societies, beyond their differences.
Other characteristics of this sexual division of labor is that it varies in space and time. The division of tasks today is not the same as in the previous times such as our mothers, it is not the same in the rural area as urban. Although to verify it, just see the statistics of how many women are there today in the labor market and how many had before. It is women who find the problem of labor and family reconciliation. In the first place, because after incorporation into the working world she has had to assume a double work day: work and family. In a second place because stereotypes prevail in society since the man is assigned production tasks and women care and domestic tasks. The effect of this change in society derives in the new labor and family roles, many women say they experience a conflict between family and work and vice versa.
In this work section we will show the research aspects, we will explain the course we have taken to undertake the study, as well as justify why we have done so. The first thing we will do when the investigation is to ask ourselves what point of view will be the most appropriate for the realization. Once the object of study we approach is illustrated, we realize the need to face the course of the investigation using a qualitative methodology.
At the same time, the study we are doing seeks to identify a problem and find a solution to solve as much as possible the consequences of this situation. To this Manion and Cohen research model, they refer as a procedure focused on their objective and in dealing with the problem immediately, it also refers to managing certain variables through different routes that allow us to then make necessary adjustments for the subject investigated to obtain positive changes. Apart from being a project that has no end point to never stop improving in practice. The information collection formula used to develop this work has been a questionnaire, we think it is the most appropriate method to obtain the necessary information. For us the perfect research would not respond only to a perspective, whether qualitative or quantitative if not to a mixture of both that would give a mixture with a more real result.
Analysis of the female number in the labor market
The development of the female labor market in our country shows that since 2014 it has evolved to the point that women with the most likely to find work are young women with an educational degree and without children, especially this occurs in part -time jobs in The tertiary sector. At present, the activity of women is 53.75% and 26.57% unemployed, but we are still very far from 79.5% of Iceland and 77.2% of Sweden, which are countries with higher activity rate at European level. The greatest experienced changes in the female labor market in Spain are the following:
- The labor market in our country has increased the female rate by more than 21 points in the last 25 years.
- The women’s schooling rate is higher in all specialties to men, especially in university careers except in some engineering.
- To finish the Spanish birth rate, it has dropped from 2.2 children on average per family in the 80s to 1.1 in 2014. Although there are regions in which this inequality is more sized, there is great segregation for sex, it is reflected in all sectors that women have professional categories lower than men, with a worse remuneration and social prestige.
Evolution of the Spanish labor market in the period
In Spain, a considerable increase in female participation in the economy has been perceived, but the difference is still in front of men (53.75% of women by 65.48% of men) compared to the most countries High such as Sweden and Iceland as we have indicated above, Spain is one of the countries with the smallest rate in Europe, it should be noted that in countries with the highest rate (Sweden and Iceland) they have a greater female population than Spain, by There are greater number of active women.
It should be noted the evolution we have had in our country, since in 1960 for example, working women did not reach 3 million and from there these figures were raising until reaching 8 million in 2016, but due to the crisis we are going through, The number of unemployed reached 6 million in 2013, and the female sector was more affected than the male in this regard. In 2014, unemployment decreased to 5.9 million, of which 2.8 were women and 3.1 were men.
- Decrease in the number of children
The birth rate has decreased in all European countries, but to a greater extent in the Sud countries of Europe, due to the fact that the participation of women in the labor market and family training seems to be more complicated compared to countries of the north of the continent, which have both the birth rate and activity remarkably higher than in Spain, since in 2000 we were the country with the lowest fertility rate. In the data of female activity rates, it can be seen that as the birth rate is increasing, which shows us that the incorporation of women into the labor market has a negative influence on population growth.
- Impact of marriages
The incorporation of women into the labor market has fundamentally had two effects on women: -Mayor economic independence of the family -a greater psychological balance of women -change in the distribution of time. Increase in time dedicated to work outside the home to the detriment of family activities. These effects have direct consequences on those that surround it. The woman has been throughout history the main axis of family and family life. However, since the incorporation of her into the labor market, she has had to combine her professional activity with her responsibilities as a wife, mother and daughter, within the family. The dedication to work outside the home, if all other variables remain the same, has had an influence on the performance of family responsibilities. According to the preliminary data of the Time Employment Survey 2002-2003 made by the INE, women who have a job, dedicate three hours less to the care of children than those who do not have it.
Family life is complicated with the incorporation of women into work, for the simple reason that both men and women are forced daily to spend more time to work than to the family (with a normal time of eight hours) of such a form that tiredness and sometimes the accumulated stress of the working day, explodes in the field where we find ourselves more comfortable: in the family. The more woman’s activity in the work world, there are more divorces, you can compare in 1989 with 2000, where in 1989 there was less activity of women and there were, 11 divorces of every 100 marriages, and, compared to The year 2000, having more work activity there are 17 divorces every 100 marriages.
- Women’s work position
During the passage of time women have been incorporated into the labor market, being a slow, progressive process. This has generated important modifications in the economic reality of the world, which has meant a challenge to be isolated and defining the particularities of the labor market with a gender vision. On the other hand, the European regulatory context and legislative advances have been one of the greatest standards to lay the basis for the real achievement of labor market equality, an increasingly advanced reality, but far from what the female equality.
During the last decades the incorporation of women in the labor market has been very important, due to its increase. Despite this growth that leads us to a very positive evolution, the division of tasks established for men and women has been marked by an unequal social recognition and less prestige, which has been translated into greater precariousness in working and economic conditions, In greater temporalization of contracts, in higher part -time contract rates and in the wage gap. That is, the salary differences between women and men in the labor market. The woman’s salary is clear, less than in men, which makes generating greater inequality.
Regulations that regulate the concialiation of working life
- Personal and family
The legislative and political measures whose main objective is the conciliation of working, family and personal life are framed within the objectives aimed to promote and promote equal opportunities and treatment between women and men. From the European Union, a series of directives have developed that force member states to incorporate measures aimed at improving and making living and employment conditions for workers and workers more compatible into their legislation. Spanish regulations to facilitate the reconciliation of working, family and personal life are defined fundamentally from two laws:
- Law 39/1999 of November 5 to promote the reconciliation of the family and work life of working people
- Organic Law 3/2007 of March 22 for the effective equality of women and men.
Conciliation rights of women’s working life
The reconciliation rights of working, family and personal life play an important role in achieving real equality between women and man. Among other conciliation measures, the following are contemplated:
- Maternity: 16 weeks of permission are extended to 2 more weeks in case of birth, adoption or reception of sons or daughters with disabilities. The father can make use of this permission in case of death of the mother.
- Paternity: The right of a permission for paternity, autonomous of the mother corresponding to 13 day by birth, adoption or reception, which is added to the two days recognized by collective agreement.
- Breastfeeding: corresponds to a daily hour that can be accumulated in days off.
- Holidays: The right to enjoyment outside the periods of temporary disability for pregnancy, childbirth or breastfeeding is collected.
The objective of this work is to analyze the female labor market generally in Spain, but coupling examples of different countries and places to corroborate that this discrimination is generally worldwide. In some cases this we have proven that it is a consequence that women are generally responsible for taking care of home and children. As we have analyzed in this work, women in general have to combine domestic tasks with work despite continuing their professional career, that is, two complete and reproductive functions must do two complete functions. To solve this there must be a substantial change in society, since this situation could change if between men and women the domestic tasks and care of the children were distributed, and the only way to do it in our opinion is to socialize the new generations with This type of concepts both in school and in its educational field and in each of the households, and in the street. In addition to taking into account this, equality of salaries between men and women must be achieved in the near future since this will be a great incentive for the change in mentality.
The incorporation of women into the labor market has triggered gender inequalities, these inequalities between both sexes are something that women suffer more since they charge them below the salary of men generally. This situation seems unfair since both men and women have to have the same possibilities and rights in the labor market. We can verify that there is a higher level of female unemployment, this worries us because today any woman can perform the same job as a man and vice versa. We have discussed this issue because we consider that it affects us directly since women will have greater difficulties when finding a job and progressing within the company and unfortunately in Spain it has been normalized, being able to verify, for example, in men who are dedicated to Construction and women sector The care of other people in the services sector since women have accepted this role is observed above all from the previous generations of women who assume the responsibility of the whole family and household chores while That man’s responsibility is to keep the house economically, etc … On the contrary, in the 21st century women have greater ambitions, they want to form in order to opt for a greater salary and not have to depend on anyone. Finally we can say that little by little the woman is winning the place that corresponds in the labor market to small steps and demonstrating her worth.