- Show more
The evolution of the civilizations of man
The word culture acquired a presence in many European languages throughout the modern era where the term culture was used in the sense that referred to the care of animals, crops or something. In the sixteenth century the term of culture was working as human development was giving a transcendental change to the meaning that was given to this term of the care of crops and animals to cultivate of the mind. This process was taken strength at the end of the 18th century until the 19th century.
Where the word culture was used as a synonym for civilization that derives from the Latin word "civilis" that means a citizen, this term was first used in France where it was used to refer to human development in which refinement was projected the orderand a dispossession of savagery and barbarism. Where its progressive character to the modern era was illustrated, where this term was used to refer to human progress and development, to cultivate or civilize. But it is not necessary to refer to this term in general.
In German this term is an opposedly used as it has been announced where the term "civilization" is connoted where this term is associated with the courtesy and refinements of the manners, now in the opposite sense it is referenced "Kultur" in a positive way ofSee individual, artistic and spiritual products that express people’s creativity. This term is linked to the stratification of cultures in modern Europe, where the upper class were called intellectuals for being members belonging to the nobility.
On the other side was the separate class, which spend their time to refine their manners. By this stratification, controversies were generated regarding these terms and their uses, where German intellectuality used the term to distinguish social classes and distinguish their achievements in the upper class. "In France there was also a nascent group of intellectuals, which included Voltaire and Diderot, but these were assimilated by the Great Society of the Paris Court, while their against German parts were excluded from courtly life".
Cite here in which German Gentility is looking for a way to train in academies in science, philosophy and art in which the entire Kultur field covered. The concept of culture emerges at the end of the 18th century and early 19, in which this is expressed in beliefs that there were and occurred for the development and progressive ennoblement of human faculties.
Which is formulated by the first German philosophers and historians, emphasizing the tillage of the values and qualities by which individuals are cultivated. Anthropological conception of culture. The assumptions that had occurred for many years on the concept of culture caused a process to be carried out where the concept of some ethnocentric connotations that tried to encourage an ethnographic description where the study of culture had as its purpose was to interpret and understandthe customs, beliefs and practices that were in society.
This concept has been related to anthropology since its beginnings where some of its main branches are intended to study cultures, the concept of culture is linked to different methods of studies that will now be announced. Now we will talk about descriptive conception and symbolic conception. The descriptive conception of culture can be explored through writings made in the nineteenth century by historians who concentrated in the description of the society where the skills, customs, weapons, elements, religions and their practices were investigated.
Art and its skills. Among the most important we find the anthropologist Taylor with his work more primitive culture published in 1978 where the contrast between civilization and culture was reflected in which he present a classical definition at the beginning of the book, Taylor covers key elements on the descriptive conception of cultureAccording to this, he considers that culture is the grouping of beliefs, laws, custom, the art and knowledge that individuals who are part of a society have been.
All these characteristics of societies that are distinguished by their cultural differences and different places. The description presented by Taylor seeks to soak up the study of culture in all areas and its components where it is about comparing in a methodologically compared how culture should be studied, where an assumption of how culture is made. In the same way classical conception of culture focused on the study of human faculties. The classical description was considered as a scientific discipline.
The fundamental basis was the analysis of comparison and classification, however, this did not prevent the definition of progress will be eliminated, but rather was framed as evolution. Where the cultural conditions of the communities together with their evolutionary development in which future actions were sought to mold with the collection of the previous stages in order to rebuild through the passage of savagery to civilization which Taylor called "survival of culture".