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The end of the military system and the renewal of the democratic system in Panama
Panama is a territory found in Central America its independence as a country achieves it on November 3, 1903, today plays a quality role according to the history covered through the years that together with El Channel manages to boost the development of each citizenand also recognizing its importance around the world. The internal movements that develop within the country during the 1968 years with the beginning of the practice of military movements that take place until 1989. The country deviates for a moment by abandoning democracy with the dictatorship of Manuel Antonio Noriega a period of terror takes place and that would harm the country. Giving the concern to the United States to intervene on Panamanian soil, they also defended the Panama Canal and its military bases. With the EE invasion. UU in 1989, militarism is terminated. Changing it to a national police, thus initiating a reconstruction in democracy.
Democracy according to Abraham Lincoln is the government “of the people and for the people and for the people. Otherwise it would be that democracy is a way of maintaining a freedom worthy of being valued. History covers a great power of our ancestors leaving our memory in a present that only experienced experiences remain. So it is interesting to discover the answer of the following question. To what extent the end of the military system influenced the renewal of the democratic system in Panama from 1988 to 1991?
I always wanted to know and learn more about the situation that was lived in Panamanian territory many years ago, in terms of the books read on the subject seems very significant, I consider them useful for deep investigation taking into account people’s opinionToday they still remember the facts.
Recognize the historical context that entails from one situation to another, since everything is a chain. The importance of this issue is that within the period from 1988 to 1990, there was a decay of democracy with the defense force established by Noriega, it is surprising to see that Panama finds this similar symbol before the world of having a militaristic system. The types of source to be used are secondary sources, in addition the investigation will be based on interviews with people who lived those experiences that occurred during these years, therefore is considered as a primary source, in relation to the relevant sources. The idea of investigating arose that knowing that Panama had a militarism, but as this movement ended when seeing that such a small country has achieved a significant moment, I also question how the democratic field is renewed after the years of decline that suffered.
It also contains the idea of how the situation in the country was after the elimination of the armed force with the 1989 invasion of the USA. UU, which happens with the existing political parties during this period. The investigation will be developed based on structured chapters from the military system, invasion of the United States to the renewal of democracy in 1991.
The investigation is focused since the end of the military system with Noriega and the beginning of the renewal of democracy with Guillermo Endara Galimany. A critical analysis will be carried out at the end of this investigation with the reason to publicize the limitations that were presented when carrying out the study case.
Military System 1988
At the end of the 80s and early 90s, Panama went through a series of struggles, manifestations and protests that marked the way to democracy. The reason that the population will carry out opposition movements is due to the deviation of General Manuel Antonio Noriega in charge of the militaristic regime in Panama, which causes leaders such as Arturo Del Vallecountry. All this with the purpose of achieving a dismissal of the general, is the situation that was lived for the 1988.
“On February 25, 1988, DelValle separated General Noriega from his position as Commander in Chief of the Defense Forces indicating that his efforts had been useless to convince this to agreed on it in view of the serious situation faced by the country.”(Pizzurno, Araúz, 1996, p.624).
Before this situation happened in Panama, the relationship of General Noriega, in charge of directing the different battalions existing in the defense force established by the same general in Panama, where Colonel Leónidas Macías Macías Macías stands out from the General Staff.
According to the interview, "Mr. Benito declares that by the years 1988 there was a great decline in the kiosks of the community there was not much merchandise to buy". (B. Espinoza, Personal Information, October 6, 2018).
In the Panamanian people the total fall of the State is shown, because according to Espinoza the interviewee all the kiosks that were in different communities were clean without merchandise because the people bought and there was no merchandise entry and this causes the revolution to make protests for proteststo take them into account. All as a product of the regime, from my point of view the company was seriously removed.
DelValle begins a trip to the United States to get or harm General Noriega, major bosses show a disagreement with this decision, upon learning of said movement, Del Valle has to disappear and travel to the United States due to the pressure of the force of the forceOf defense, since this year the Americans begin to carry out a study and analyze the complaints presented by the general, and through the days the economic part of Panama is affecting there is a decrease in tariffs. The Americans worried about the situation decide to withdraw cash before the dollar currency was not allowed more.
"Since March 1988, the National Banking Commission gave express orders to cease all the operations of the general license banks" (Chong, Moises, 1998, p.324). All this happens following that they get Del Valle and R. ESQUIVEL OF POWER. From here the true political and mainly economic crisis begins. The country decays when the social environment changed in a moment of political and military despair. neighboring countries find out that Noriega was making economic hoarding decisions for itself.
In relation to the democratic system with this regime, electoral frauds were given, the right to vote was currently being lost, in addition the civilian population was repressed and the revenge of being powerful, a great money laundering also occurs bysenior officials.
"There was a breach of electoral democracy and officials participated in international drug trafficking" (Salazar, Esteban, 2004, p.187). As the source mentioned, many government officials were complicit in drug trafficking, so many Colombian criminals took refuge in Panamanian ports to travel to the United States. It is inferred that there was a bad management of the government by the general, democracy is forgotten under the regime the population is intimidated. The discrimination of the population is completely destroyed in the country. All under control of the general and reviewed by this.
The elections of May 7, 1989 are annulled on May 10, by intervention of the Defense Force together with the Dignity Battalions. Within the violence in the country, new general elections were developed, which by tradition had to be celebrated, the custody of the defense force intimidates the population.
"The elections are held through alliances, Mr. Guillermo Endara, Guillermo Ford Ricardo Arias Calderón were postulated as president" (Chong, Moises, 1998, p.328). Mr. DelValle influences decisions because he is exaliated from Noriega, he is concerned about the state of the country.
Espinoza Benito explains "the government was Codi-Pode" means that people were preparing for invasion for the United States. In addition, this was not good because they were cannon meat, most did not know about the dominance of weapons.
According to sources, political parties were suggested by General Noriega. Fraud was committed in the realization of the elections. At that time there were matches such as: Popular Party, Authentic Liberal Party, El Molinero, Christian Democratic Party. This entire opposition party makes a union to win the elections with the Christian Democratic Party to appoint Nicolas Ardito Barletta as president.
This president only exercises power in a year for what is intervened by the defense force commanded by Noriega. This contributes to the presence of US warplanes. UU, they fly over Panamanian territory to start an invasion, but the Panamanian military takes it as a routine that observe it every day, without knowing the intention of this thought.
United States Invasion to Panama
On December 20, the country of Panama is invaded by military forces corresponding to the United States Army causing great destruction. “The military offensive against Panama Defense Forces was made to protect the lives of Americans. Defend democracy in Panama ”(Pizzurno, Araúz, 1996, p.642).
The key objective of this invasion was to capture General Manuel Antonio Noriega, to be tried in the United States due to the positions presented regarding drug trafficking, and renewing the expected democratic system in Panama in this year.
According to Espinoza Benito “the Americans wanted to weaken the defense force and that the US military bases were maintained. UU in the country ".
The Americans try to help contribute to the renewal of a new democracy in the country and eliminate defense forces, but the restlessness of the people is intense that it becomes difficult to control their behavior, but through the US military force. UU limits them and gradually take control of Panama.
With the invasion that begins in Chorrillo, a place that is totally destroyed by the constant bombings of the American force to make sense of words. Noriega faces the enemy with the defense forces established in Farallón. Since then the population is worried about the situation, dying hundreds of Panamanians who were close to the events, in a few hours of the morning. The ruins that remain of the bombs uncomfortable the situation of the male of Monte, Military Force Group in Panama, is alerting shouting the “gringos have invaded us” Lottery 501 magazine, Pantaleón García (Page. 31), seeing the airplanes flying against them, being the groups of the military member prey easy for the North American aircraft, the small tanks are games for airplanes with machine gun at the same time the population enters chaos and starts a looting to the main onesshops.
This disorder causes instability in the country, with the presence of military state that for two days achieve the capture of Manuel Antonio Noriega, is immediately transferred to the United States. He is taken from the country, then suffering the consequences of his crimes and horror acts.
A new democracy
After the invasion, Panama was born with the original way of thinking democratically. "The midnight of December 20, 1989, in an American military base in the Canal’s area, Guillermo Endara Galimany presidency, winner of the 1989 elections being annulled by the military government", (Salazar Ureña, 2004, p. 229).
When the invasion events occurred, Panamanians decide to support the reconstruction of what had declined during Noriega’s militarism.
Despite the economic and political crises of 1990 the country begins a period with a representative layers of cope with the situation that occurred as a result of the fall of the military regime.
According to Rodríguez Alfredo in his interview statement, he argues that "the country with respect to the economic factor was bankrupt, all banks were closed," this influences the way of the mismanagement given to money in last year. For the Panamanians it was difficultThe military dictatorship with Noriega, therefore, is more interested in the part of leaving the hole where he was to show a new confidence above all the countries around the world.
With the end of the system that Manuel Antonio Noriega had imposed in Panama, the politicbeen left with the dictatorship, which is known as the new democracy.
At the moment the population launches to declare their concerns that bothers them for a long time, such as changing the country and about women take advantage of this moment to express their importance as transformatives of the nation, when the effort of women begins the decade of the 90sPanamanian takes importance in the situation by fighting for rights by moving thinking and politics. They decide to carry out series of institutions with the purpose that benefits them in the future.
"Among the organizations created by women is the Women and Development Forum, forum of women of political parties, the National Women’s Council and the Network against Violence aimed at women and family" (Ureña, 2004, p. 225).
For Mr. Alfredo, he declares that "after the invasion with President Guillermo Endara Galimany the country begins to organize for a better future and abandon the events and rebuild what was affected". (A. Rodríguez, what lived during the 90s, October 6, 2018).
In the source it is inferred that with the appointment of the new president there is the need for total renewal towards a new country. For society this allows effective development to increase potentials with the help of the State. In addition, the government is interested in improving what is destroyed as a product of militarism that deviate democracy. On the other hand, despite the fact that the country was disintegrated in a short time, order was instituted, trusting conversion for a future. Galimany with the country in the hands calms the situation.
In the social field people share solidarity by exchanging ideas and manifesting their point of view with Galimany tolerance prepares for the following year, improving the economy with militarism. (Salazar Ureña, 2004) says that "the economy grew due to the implementation of neoliberal policies" (p. 2004). Everything is organized with the objective of improving external debt towards other countries, it also covers the reorganization of globalization applying a planning for the national economy an excellent path of change. It is also emphasized that here Guillermo Endara Galimany fights for the restoration of trust before all people.
However, certain Panamanian policemen are still with the rigor of militarism for the beginning of 1991 are observed dispersed in Panamanian territory organized by a general causing the United States to fix the eyes and intervene immediately, they are captured by military state of Unidenses state. These produced a total modification dismissing the Head of the National Police;lowering the levels of weapons of war and dismissing certain units which were responsible for following the militaristic movement. In addition, they completed with the elimination of the Christian Democratic Party, ending with the suffocation of Colonel Herrera movements. Which was considered as the opponent of the counter of all the organizations of the President of the Republic
"On December 4, 1990, the last military intervention of the twentieth century by the United States in Panama occurred, with the intention of suffocating an attempt to raise the Panamanian military, led by Colonel Eduardo Herrera Hassán" (Salazar Ureña Ureña, 2004, p. 187).
Institutionality in Panama returns and reborn with the contribution of the three organs of the State: Executive Body, Judicial Body, Legislative Body. Endara was able to calm the protests of the residents of Chorrillo. Galimany achieved the executive body, with the Supreme Court of Justice, manages to regulate the norms while the relationship towards the Electoral Court was difficult because a lot of fraud was committed with militarism, however, it allowed the new start of the realization of electionElectoral with a free suffrage, that is, it depended on each person to choose in which hands the country will be. This very excellent politician takes completely adequate measures for the development of different spaces, whether political, economic and social. Everything starts to march well throughout its presidential management.
On the other hand, with President Endara Galimany manages to obtain a relationship with the United States, creating the ACP (Panama Canal Authority), which is related to the USA. UU for a good march promoter to direct the resuscitation of all people worthy of being free of expression.
To conclude by giving the answer to my question, to what extent the end of the military system influenced the renewal of the democratic system in Panama from 1988 to 1991?, When the period from 1988 until 1991 takes place, a suffering arises within the country that ends up sweeping the population to a complicated destination, highlighting General Manuel Antonio Noriega as dictator of Panama where it causes democracy to go back to a path of the void. Noriega in the power for the 1988 begins to restrict the population to stay in power, this produces a failure for what the population is revealed to the country manifesting their concern to the power of the United States.
Causing this to organize an invasion in order to reserve democracy and defend the rights of the people, in addition to the purpose of finishing the military regime directed by Manuel Antonio Noriega.
- Ureña, s. AND. (2004). History of Panama: from prehistory to today. Jan. Ureña, Salazar, (pages. 187-228). Panama: Santillana S.A.