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The emergence of capitalism and economic scope
The economic sphere has been present in the life of the human being since time immemorial, and goes from the moment of simple decision making such as choosing a concrete bus route, to more complex areas such as millionaire investments in companies. This process of economic elections has become so everyday in our lives, which has become a fundamental aspect of the life of human being.
In the same way that capitalism has deeply rooted in society’s thinking, although there are some exceptions. This is because we are practically born with this economic system and possibly last until we leave this world. However, several issues arise, such as: What was the trigger for its emergence and subsequent empowerment in the world’s economies? Does capitalism have an expiration date? Would there be any system capable of replacing capitalism? From what time we have so impregnated economic decisions in our life?
It is through this essay, that I will seek to grant a simple analysis of these questions that commonly surround the head of many, but that are not taken into account by the complexity that is believed to exist in the economic field;Actually this issue can be easily treated by all of us, since it is in our nature.
Starting with the economic issue, it is common to associate this aspect with reasons regarding trade, finance, capital, wealth management, etc. However, it would fall into the big mistake of seeing only part of the economy, since there is more than only figures in economic sciences due to its social character. To start from this social point, it must be recognized that the economic issue comes from the beginning of the formation of the communities, adding the issue of sexuality that was very important at that time, as Nedo (1996) explains:
When, during the Neolithic, the awareness that the fruits generated by nature were outlined with their intervention, the essentially religious idea of sexuality of sexuality as a motor force that ruled the changes operated in it was extended with their intervention. (p.29)
This greatly influenced the economy at that time, as well as important institutions, which have been maintained over time and correspond to reciprocity, redistribution and exchange. This in the communities supported the social bond, with respect to its function of integrating human beings. We could put a comparison of that with the ancient communities and our society, in the case of the primitive community, in which the boss was in charge of the redistribution of the products equally with their citizens, as this now happens with the head of the head of the head of theState or president, who is responsible for administering the resources of the entire population in hospitals, education centers, urbanization, etc. Of course, it is not the same due to the years of evolution that have passed, but continues to be present in the organization of the states.
Of course, not everything is collective as it is painted about the function, which exists in these institutions about integration. POLANYI (1957) clarifies: "The terms reciprocity, redistribution and exchange, with which we designate forms of integration, are frequently used to define personal interrelations" (P.6). In other words, this explains that these institutions come in order to add something more to individual motifobject, in the market;In the redistribution of the food, the subject is the center, which is responsible for distributing in equal parts to his family;In reciprocity he watches because everyone has received a dish and this is also born from the individual need to be feeding, as in the distribution to obtain a part of the dinner.
This in turn is linked to the theme of the introduction, in which I mentioned the decisions. As the economic is so closely related to the human being, since the times in which he joined a community, and as they have evolved together and diversifying. However, when the economy began to be seen as a process more aligned with science, it is when everything changed.
And – as indicated – this sacralization inevitably leads to what we could call "scientific alienation", by charging science of their own flights and subjecting individuals to their dictates, which is accentuated in the case of the economy and, in general, of the sciences that deal with human behavior and that in their objective eagerness end up reducing man to a few one -dimensional processes or imposing servants in the name of a certain idea of "economic", "political" system, etc. (Naredo, 1996, P.12)
When the human being leaves, giving him an approach as another pawn to get an end, it is when the social issue of the economic is separated. We have already seen as a primitive community pass from a set to slavery. In which another human being was exploited to use his workforce. From slavery he went to feudalism in which exploitation was something concealed and the human being who lent his workforce became a servant instead of a slave, all in order to achieve protection from his feudal lord.
Laying the foundations for capitalism, mercantilism appears since this system was characterized in the idealization that a prosperous state when it has and accumulate precious metals. This idea was reinforced with colonialism, since based on the exploitation of the new continent is like the economies of colonizing countries grew more, in addition to reinforcing the conception of power against other countries that did not possess colonies. "What if it is of any doubt, however, is that colonialism devastated colonized societies" (Chang, 2015, p.47). As Chang mentioned colonialism I leave scars that have not been healed totally.
Although capitalism was born in the 16th century in Europe, being a somewhat slow process, there are several elements that we must take into account in addition to mercantilism and the previous economic systems such as its base and this lies in the exchange economy, which influencesThe self-consumption of individuals and merchants, main actors, who saw their boom in marketing novel products in stores, markets, fairs, etc. Highlighting the fairs which gave way to the stock market, which was responsible for giving loans and in turn this generated more consumption by individuals. "What seems primary in the pre -industrial economy is, in effect, the coexistence of the rigidities, inertia and clumsiness of an still elementary economy with limited and minority movements, although alive and powerful, of modern growth" (Braudel, 1986, p.eleven).
Emphasizing, in consumption it is like capitalism has had its domain and permanence over so many years. Although it had been mentioned as economic influences the decisions and individual desire of the human being. Capitalism has a certain tendency to productivity at all costs, such as its predecessors economic systems, but with the strategy of buying the individual’s work force. In this way, using the person, not in a slave but similar way, increased production and thus sold more, obtaining many benefits. Of course, in this vision of progress, the abuses of capitalism are not mentioned as it was: the fact of hiring children to the work fields, the arduous working days and the very low wages. Thanks to the unions and their fight, that terrible reality could be changed.
In order for the perfection of capitalism to occur, there had to be certain processes such as industrialization, although it brought development to the human being also produced many inconveniences. Since new technologies completely replaced the manual work of human beings, in terms of effectiveness. This and much more brought the capitalism that we have today, being mainly its function consumption, we live continuously with the conception of what the market puts into our eyes;The last model’s cell phone, the clothes that are in trend, the film company that brings films, to the services of educational institutions, hospitals, etc. All our daily life is trapped in that capitalist structure imposed centuries ago.
Wallerstein (as cited in Pizzarro Accountant, 2016, P.27) Think that: If the world capitalist system – how much structure that responds to the rationality issued by the incessant search for accumulation – enjoys stability, also as a historical system has a life cycle. This would cease to exist as a result of its inability to ensure at a global scale that the rhythm of expansion of real consumption equals to the rhythm of wealth growth.
There is no something as an exact date on which capitalism will expire as the main economic system, there is not something secured about the system that replaces it. However, there are certain alternatives that could direct us to the drastic change of a neoclassical economy to the importance of the human being. It is where the social and solidarity economy enters the scene, being a non -capitalist option
As the subtitle of this volume indicates, we believe that an economic system oriented towards good living can only result from a collective, social and political construction strategically located in the field of forces generated by the relationship between work and capital. (Coraggio, 2011, P.38)
What does the social and solidarity economy of capitalism have different? It is the one that comes from a process in which, what counts is the job. It is important because this conception that has to possess riches as status and power to a broader approach in the work and effort that is carried out is changed. This economy also takes into account that people stand out for their own talents and characteristics, not recriminating them by the fact that everyone must be the same. It is a novel and interesting alternative in a world that is so corrupted by the neoclassical economic system.
In conclusion, the economic issue has been and is a crucial part in relation to our elections from the formation of organizations to the agitated today. In the reference, to the emergence of capitalism it was a domino effect in which it is observed, that from certain coincidences they gave to a system devised by the human being that ended up devouring it completely;To this problem, viable solutions are sought for an improvement in the relations of individuals, such as social and solidarity economy.
These facts that I have mentioned, in the final are brief explanations on the economic issue in which I differ from the idea of greater productivity and obtaining a surplus value, life itself is balanced, in addition to the idea that with moneyYou can be totally happy. In the end if you die you will not take anything and it would be best.