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The effect of decision -making of an educational leader
Decision making is a process that consists mainly in the selection of an option, which is considered the most appropriate, among a series of alternatives available, in order to solve a problem that is currently or in the future. The need to make decisions can become a very tedious, difficult and disconcerting process;The difficulty of collecting all the necessary information to choose the most appropriate decision entails the responsibility and consequences of decision making. The effective educational leader has the responsibility of making decisions with the primary purpose of resolving a conflict or situation that prevents him from achieving the goals or objectives that have been formulated and that result in the benefit of the institution and the school community.
The proposed models, theories or perspectives to make effective decisiona diversity of alternatives. Lorenzo (2005) establishes that "leadership is the engine of that historical, social and cultural construction that we call educational center". The author also establishes "that educational organizations have their own life, where the leader implants character and prints his own style to the educational institution he directs". Educational institutions have qualities that make it unique. In the same way, they have weaknesses that both the educational leader and the school community must face and strengthen them. Therefore, all personnel must be involved and familiar with the decision -making process.
According to several authors who have pointed out that the educational context covers several dimensions such as: ethics, cohesion and resources and the necessary skills that allow the educational leader to face the development and changes that the concepts of innovation, autonomy, autonomy,problem solving, empowerment, resilience, decision -making and educational democracy. The process of making decisions in collaborative school contexts proposes creation communities of collaborative learning and the implementation of democratic plans, conducive to liberating and democratic education, which Pablo Freire proclaimed so much. On the other hand, the National Policy Board for Educational Administration (2015) has established that "educational leaders face the enormous task of providing a democratic learning environment". The educational leader has the responsibility of maximizing the available resources, that is, to promote integration through a cooperative environment, in which everyone assumes some responsibility and can make team decisions;In order to develop and transform the learning process.
Education like other fields develops through social, cultural, political and economic changes. The inferred dynamics of the aforementioned changes proposes new paradigms that invite to reflect on the function or social role that educational institutions perform. This social role allows individuals to develop effectively and become human beings that are part of a society that invites the total development and integration of individuals. For these purposes, it is imperative to understand that, within that integration or social collaboration, democracy is a crucial point and to which every being must aspire. In this context, it is important to point out that democracy allows us to differ and even agree with the positions that others have proposed, therefore, respect for the diversity of opinions is fundamental in all democratic processes. Soto (2016) refers that: "Democracy is an order that is characterized that laws and norms are built or transformed by the same people who will live, comply with and protect".
The article "Decision making in collaborative school contexts" presents the concept and training of democratic and collaborative educational environments (Rodríguez, 1996). Many educational approaches have been developed to try to adapt education to the needs and values of the 21st century. In democratic education it is promoted that the learning process is based on the fundamental values of our society. Democratic education does not see young not as simple passive knowledge receptors, but as active people and creators of their own learning. That is, students are not the product of an educational system, but these are part of a system that values the participants that make up the learning community.
Amy Gutmann (1999) defines democratic education "as a world movement towards a greater decision -making power for students in the functioning of their own schools". It is important to point out that democratic education has as a fundamental principle and basic premise that all human beings are unique and, therefore, each of us learns and thinks differently. By supporting the individual development of each young man within a solidarity community, democratic education helps young people to learn about themselves, stay in control, get involved with the world around them, have the ability to decide or choose and becomepositive and taxpayers of society;These are the concepts that give life to democratic education.
Rodríguez (1996) understands that collaboration is “a process established between the participants, tends to the analysis and the type of relationships generated in educational institutions and between this and its closest environment, the family and social institutions”. In the same way, it establishes that school is a place where the teacher and students promote social rules and justice. In addition, it establishes that "a school that promotes collaboration and development of values such as interdependence, opening, communication, self-regulation and autonomy". The author establishes, through the article, that collaborative schools must be supported by communication, reflection and interpersonal relationships and analysis and review of the current reality of educational institutions. In this context, education challenges the approach to traditional teaching, where fundamental belief is that young people must follow the example of their teachers and not question their ability or knowledge. The democratic approach establishes that students and teachers must go hand in where participation is not only in teaching practice but also in the curriculum and any other matter that involves the educational context.
Through the article, the need to form schools committed to social and democratic values in which the decision-making process is based on the same way is established, democratic education is challenged as well, it challenges the conventional form of the teaching process-learning establishing its basis in the commitment to build a participatory community. Beane and Apple (1995) explain that educators committed to democracy know that any inequality in schools will also be in the community. Therefore, they not only seek democracy in institutes, but also need to be extended to the community (Beane and Apple 1995, cited in Essays, 2018). Therefore, democratic education is important not only for the benefit of young people who experience this type of learning. Well, democratic education also has the potential to disseminate a broader social impact, since self-determinated people who experience the process of democratic education will be leaders and participate in the construction of a more democratic and fair society.
The article aims to demonstrate the importance of developing democratic and participatory school environments. In that sense, leadership styles in educational environments are important. The author highlights democratic and autocratic leadership. This suggests that the leader uses democratic leadership in which, said leader assumes a position aimed at adopting roles, which is understood as: “the ability to put themselves in the place of the others. Regarding the style of autocratic leadership Rodríguez (1996) states that its use is not convenient in a fair and collaborative school. As for this point it is important to note that in a democratic school the task of the leader and teachers is not to impose, but that these must be open to communication, dialogue, reflection and debate. The objective of this opening is aimed that students manage to develop the ability to discuss, dialogue and execute their own decisions. In that sense, Ayers (2009) states that ‘students should be able to ask their own trial based on evidence, ask fundamental questions and look for answers wherever they take them’.
Effective leadership delegates to the Director the responsibility of promoting collective work environments, therefore, it is essential that the teacher see education from the systemic, collaborative and cooperation perspective, but not as an individual task in which everyone lives dispersed,hoping that the teacher provides the instructions of this or that task. We said in another job, that in these times the capacity of the educational leader and its supervised is questioned, however, we were stunned and inert in the face of the questions of different sectors. Hence the importance of leaders have the ability to self-motive and convince themselves that educational transformation begins with them. The concept of fair schools or learning community promotes the democratic style and the transformation of educational institutions, leaders, teachers, father and students.
Flecha (2007) establishes that “collaborative learning is aimed at overcoming school failure and conflict elimination, this project is committed to dialogic learning through interactive groups, where equitable dialogue becomes a common effort to achieve equalityEducational of all students ". While, Imbernon (2007) points out that within the necessary changes in education is to understand that teaching has currently become a necessary and essential collective work to improve the work process of the teaching staff, the organization of educational institutionsand student learning. That is, all components of the educational community are equally important to carry out the teaching-learning process.
Democratic leadership is a leadership style in which group members play a significant role in the decision -making process This type of leadership promotes that everyone has the opportunity to participate, ideas are freely exchanged and encourages dialogue. The democratic process tends to focus on group equality and ideas free flow, however, the group leader is there to offer guidance and control. Several researchers have described that the democratic leadership style is one of the most effective types and leads to greater productivity, better contributions from group members and greater moral of the group. The leader, in this case is the director, must be able to practice and promote educational transformation, innovate, direct all its members and school towards a change of mentality, improving vision and mission using the talent and skills of theirmembers.
Transformational leadership requires leaders with a broader and long -term vision, but leaders who look beyond the walls of their school and learn from others. The transformational leader creates a culture of innovation and motivates teachers and students continuously progressing. These have the objective of creating efficient learning environments and where students can develop in an integral way. In addition, it is necessary that this type of leader trust themselves and be aware that the transformation is not the act of a single person, but that there is the effort of a whole united team where the end is to achieve progress and well -beingeveryone equally. Burns (1978) establishes that the transformational leader provides change and movement to the organization through a clear vision of the goals that intend to achieve and guide the institution towards the educational quality of excellence;and with equity for all and the professionalization of the teacher. This type of leader emphasizes the new possibilities and promotes a vision of the future because it is guided by a strong sense of purpose ”.
On the other hand, transactional leadership is based on a system of rewards and punishments. Dubrin (2004) indicated that transactional leaders focus on participating in exchanges with the members of their team, these exchanges are based on what leaders expect from their employees. While Bryant (2003) declared that "Transactional Leaders have three main features". First, transactional leaders work with their team members and try to obtain a reward for their goal. Second, they will exchange the rewards and promises of the reward for work effort. Finally, transactional leaders respond to the personal and immediate interest of workers.
Rodríguez (1999) presents the importance of promoting educational institutions aimed at the participation of the educational community in the decision -making process with the purpose of achieving the goals or objectives of the school. The approach proposed by the author for participatory decision making was developed by Lawrence Kohlberg. The concept of "fair community" focuses on moral education and its main characteristic is consensus. This approach aims to build a moral community that involves students in decision making. The fair community has the purpose of promoting group cohesion, promoting democratic skills and reducing disciplinary problems. In a democratic school, students make decisions about dilemmas and real -life actions, also assume responsibilities through dialogue, reasoning and argumentation. In this way, the Democratic School defends the need to maintain and transmit the fundamental values, ethics and morals to all members of the community. For Kohlberg, educating the student in decision -making requires a balanced school and favors the social and moral cognitive growth of their students.
Ethics, in the discourse of the fair community is conceived by virtue of respect and recognition of the existence of norms and values established by consensus. García (2003) states that this recognition allows educational institutions to develop a moral climate or atmosphere, and in which it is guaranteed that community components do not experience discrimination or violence. In addition, it seeks to respect and take into account everyone’s opinions (García, 2003, cited Lazarte, 2005). As for the role of the teacher, this consists in promoting the moral development of students through different methods, such as: dialogue, clarifications and discussion of moral dilemmas, among others. The role of the educational leader is extremely important this is a facilitator and guidance of all the processes that are intended to be executed in the educational institution and promote the integration of all the components of the educational community.
The decision -making process is fundamental in the innovative educational context invites democratic participation and contextualization of the fair school community. It is essential to raise awareness among the educational community, but above all to the teacher about collaborative and participatory environments. We attend with the author’s approach in creating school, participatory, fair, democratic and inclusive environments. These aspects, without a doubt, promote among the participants the development of values, ethics and morals, which are very relevant at the time of proposing alternatives and making weighted decisions.
Although it is a highly questioned matter, there are many sectors that claim that values, ethics and morals is a merely familiar matter. On the other hand, others emphasize that the role of teachers in this matter is fundamental and involves compliance with the primary goal of education. The basic objective of education is the development of students with an integral well -being and capable of becoming good citizens. In fact, the exposure of reasons for the new educational reform provides that: “The Puerto Rican school must be an effective instrument for the construction of a fair and democratic society, cultivating ethics, solidarity and social conscience” (Law 85, 2018). In this educational context, ethical and moral issues is not an issue that concerns the family only. These are part of the daily life of schools. The promotion of democratic participation in school is a very valuable tool;and from which every educational leader has. It is undeniable that in all educational environments difficult situations arise or decisions are made where it is necessary. Therefore, offering the student the opportunity to participate in this process can have very favorable effects for students. Among these effects we can highlight the development of social and communication skills, improve self – esteem and self-concept, develop critical thinking and judgment, inspire and model social values.
To conclude it is important to note that the school administration requires effective leaders who can influence others, including moral and teaching ethical philosophy, in addition to directing the institution in the most fair way possible. Although doing the right thing seems to be a relatively easy matter, the reality is that most of the time it is a very difficult matter, turning ethical practice into an extremely complex matter, but that has become an unavoidable role of educational leaders. From our perspective, a true leader is that serve as a model, acts with ethics and integrity, but above all it is one that the personal and organizational mission are aligned with the aim of offering students the possibility of developing a sense of morality throughof participation. Undoubtedly, this democratic process gives students a sense of relevance and that will certainly help them become a detached citizen and capable of positively contributing to our society.
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