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The educational situation in Bolivia and Diversity
The current situation of disability in Bolivia is established by a clear situation of discrimination, inequality, exclusion and poverty, unfortunately this situation indicates that this part of society is a victim of discrimination in different contexts of social life, generally they have no equality of opportunities and are subject to a permanent violation of their rights, due to the colonized thoughts that we retain based on inferiority, compasivity, denial of the other and intolerance, it is necessary to build an inclusive, fair, respectful, tolerant society, free of discrimination and human, which protects and defends diversity in all its aspects.
"Diversity" is a term that the teacher must critically analyze, to generate a quality education for all in equal opportunities, and thus appropriate the sense of "being different" strengthening the potential and abilities of students, only understanding The true meaning of diversity and its relationship with society can generate spaces of true educational inclusion and therefore the improvement of academic quality.
Human diversity is related to the biological, psychological and social reality, in addition to corresponding to personal identity, which is the perception we have about ourselves, relating to the awareness of existing. This is a real, objective, indisputable and inevitable fact. And I consider that this statement establishes the dignity of the human being. That is why today and in different scenarios we hear the statement that "normal, it is to be different" and we cling to the judgment that in this world no one is "abnormal" for being different, since, in tenacity we are all different in A great range of aspects.
First of all we are human beings, we carry features that distingu us, which identify us as such, although each one is different from others in many aspects. As humans we all have talents, we can carry out many activities that are exclusively human and that no other species, overlooked that it is on the evolutionary scale, has been able to do them, nor will it be able to do them, for example: planning actions, manufacturing instruments, Talk, read, write, among others.
We can all learn and develop, even more when favorable conditions for learning are created. However, each person is outstanding for some activities, in which he learns better and faster, and not so good for others. Being different we learn differently with different rhythm and style, even some can have limitations or disadvantages due nor deny the possibility of learning and accessing development. Masters must reflect deeply on these ideas.
It is extremely unfair and reflects lack of sensitivity to label some students as "incapable", "insufficient", "lazy", "disasters", "clumsy", among others, because they learn more slowly or more difficulty, they need more support from their Companions, or require the search and application of other strategies, methods and didactic procedures by the teacher, even more when such conclusions are in a hurried way, without even stopping to think and try to discover why those children are like this and What are the causes for which "they do not learn as others". It is very common that the origin of learning difficulties is attributed directly to the child himself and the particularities of his intellect, hence the denominations and qualifiers that offend him and reduce him employee by the other children, his family, and incredible and very Unfortunately in some cases, also for their own teachers.
There are children who have been victims of such treatments so constant and systematic that even they have come to think and convince themselves that they are "incapable", "insufficient", "loose", "disasters" or "clumsy", which It generates a feeling of helplessness, a very low self – esteem that is often called as apprehended or socialized, and generally leads to demotivation for learning and school, frustration, aggressiveness or other negative reactions. With pessimistic attitudes by teachers, with those disrespectful and discriminatory qualifiers, other reactions cannot be expected and this adds to the real limitations of these students other obviously social barriers for their development, never stimulation or motivation of positive qualities and capacities. A deep reflection on this situation can lead us to the full understanding of the thesis of the eminent psychologist Lemionovich Vigotsky, that in most cases of the so -called "children with defects" social barriers constitute greater obstacles to the development that the development than the own biological disabilities.
Despite Dra’s statement. Cristina Laborda, with which I totally agree, that the term diversity is not a new concept nor is the last advance in education, since in fact it is a phenomenon consubstantial to the "problem" of educating that it has existed throughout the times , I consider that this concept has not always been understood in the educational units and in our plurinational educational system, about the differences in students, their objective character, and in the most fair and developed way to intervene from the point of the point of Pedagogical view.
There have been moments where in the educational systems a contrary conception prevailed and the class was understood as a homogeneous set or with a high degree of homogeneity, taking into consideration the similarity in the ages of its members, "the psychosomatic maturity achieved" , origin of the same neighborhood and locality and other regularities of the society in which they live: customs, values, general educational influences, norms, among others. Even working to achieve greater homogeneity in the groups. Much has been criticized, for example, the practice of segregating students to homogenize groups.
Today we know that it is deeply unfair to give equal treatment to children with development levels and very different needs. The most elementary principle of equity in pedagogical treatment indicates the need to give different treatment to different people to achieve more leveling and the maximum possible development of capacities in each student. Another element on which it is worth meditation is the role that the group can and should play in the integral development of the personality of each of its members if you know how to direct and use that potential: socialization, exchange, interaction, The model, cooperation, support of the most outstanding, without excluding replace, or overproteger to anyone.
On the other hand, it complemented this situation that we analyzed another element that did not favor effective pedagogical attention to the diversity of students in school: the excessive centralization that characterized educational systems, from which very closed curricula and organizational and methodological norms were derived that all schools should comply and to which all students had to adapt. The potential to make adjustments were scarce. The teaching program should be fulfilled at the time indicated in general and by units in its unalterable sequence of content, and even methods and procedures were indicated, such as a kind of “methodological recipe” to teach them. Documents were developed for the teacher and methodological orientations that used to become rigid indications rather than true orientations or guide, without margin to maneuver according to the specificities of the contexts. A flexible educational process that responded to students’ demands was not conceived. The school had, in such circumstances, little or no authority to make transformations no matter how much they were. There was little talk about diagnosis and psycho -pedagogical intervention in schools that will allow the "start level" or starting of students to take continuous and systematic monitoring of their demands and needs in the learning process in the learning process in the learning process. The conception of homogeneity of the-class groups that many people, including teachers and other professionals had been rooted both, hearing in the first moments of diversity or pedagogy of diversity in school, they believed that it was a private subject of special teaching in its limited conception of special school.
Likewise, there has been reductionism in relation to the conception of diversity in school when it has only been associated with students and, therefore, their problems and difficulties were attributed only to them, without considering that many other factors, various also influence directly or indirectly, positively or negatively, in their learning and development, among these students, we teachers.
Teachers also constitute diversity, with different levels of development, different psychopedagogical, cultural and methodological resources, different capacities and needs. Family, community, school and sociocultural contexts, in general, constitute a broad and complex diversity that must be taken into account in the direction of the educational process. Everything influences and converges in a miso center: the child, our student, and everything can educate or evolve, facilitate, serve as a barrier or stop development. A truly preventive educational work cannot ignore any element of the influences system.
It is essential, as a starting point that there must be a clear conception that there is objectively that diversity in our students and that we must take responsibility with the development of all. It is also necessary to know that there are different other elements that mediate the development of each school. Because we work with a diversity of students, which differ in many aspects and, above all, at their levels of development and preparation for school and general learning, it is necessary to diagnose our reality. Diagnose in this case, equivalent to knowing who we must educate without it we could not conveniently organize the educational process, it would not be possible to dispose of everything so that we achieve for each one a unit of positive educational influences that promotes, stimulate and involve it in their developing. Know the child and her environment and how he interacts with this is the first step that the teacher must take, in order to ensure quality education for all. This presupposes to know above all, the following aspects:
- The causes and types of disability that prevail in our context, to generate spaces for prevention in the community or inform to provide adequate comprehensive stimulation from the earliest age.
- Perform self-training in relation to the proper management of alternative communication systems for people with disabilities, such as the Bolivian braille and sign language system.
- Your family environment, to coordinate with family members support from home.
- Investigate and appropriate the management of information and communication technologies, educational strategies and methodologies and its application in curricular development.
- Appropriate the new inclusive conceptions of disability, difficulties in learning and extraordinary talent, established in the legal regulations of our country.
- The teacher should know how to observe his students well during all moments of the educational process to capture and interpret all the signs that each child emits.
- Establish appropriate and relevant curriculum adaptations to enhance equal opportunities in school.
At present, the educational units of our country must face many challenges that can hinder the inclusion of children with disabilities in the educational process such as bullying, intimidation, physical, verbal or psychological abuse, among others, sometimes many that minimize Or ignore these cases, especially with children with special educational needs, because in those children who have a difficulty in learning such as dyslexia, for example, it can be associated as bad behavior, distracted or “lazy” children, but it is known That in this student strip harassment among colleagues can lead to consequences such as school abandonment, lack of social skills, anxiety, depression, psychological and physical trauma, and can reach suicide in some serious cases. We are aware that the term diversity is essential for inclusion, but we have a lot to work.