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The duration of time
It is related to the events of the fable, divide at the same time by: duration, sequences management and frequency. Time per duration: it is two types: development and crisis. Development allows the development of events in a prolonged period of time, and presents a historical order in their writings, they are usually long novels. As for the crisis, it is "a short space of time in which events have been condemned". The crisis is considered a short period of time that presents information about a certain character. The crisis and development are related to chronology that allows the identification of the rhythm of a story.
The rhythm: it is the narratological element that divides the fable into scenes according to the amount of time used by events. According to (BAL) "five tempi could be distinguished". These times are: ellipsis, summary, scene, pause and deceleration. The ellipsis: is the omission of an event in history that does not happen in the fable. The ellipsis is classified as determined or indeterminate, due to the presentation or absence in the text, for example: "When I returned to New York two years later". The previous example is a determined ellipsis because it refers to the omitted time of history.
The summary: is "the perfect instrument to present background information, or to connect several scenes". The summary serves to join scenes and show relevant information according to the type of duration: crisis or development that is presented in the fable. The scene: In the scene the author presents all the necessary information for the course of the story, in addition, chronological deviations such as retrospects and anticipations can be presented. The pause: It happens when “a lot of attention is paid to an element, and in the meantime the fable remains stationary.
When he continues again, time has not passed ”. In other words, the pause is the movement in which the fable stops to pay attention to a specific element. The deceleration: it is the time that Mieke Bal added to the rhythm, it is explained that "in deceleration the time of the fable does not stop at all" (Garrido Domínguez). Since the actions of the characters become slower within the events of the fable. For example: "the reception of a letter and the reflection to which it gives rise". At the reception of the letter according to the events presented in history, it is externalized in the receiver’s thinking.
Of the letter or the sender of the same that lead to the continuity of the actions. Time by sequence management: The relationship of time with sequences arrangement refers to the relationship of the events that occur in the narrative text with the chronological order of history. In time by sequence management, verbal grammatical times that allow the identification of the sequence of events are used, often linear sequences are used because they alter the order of history. On the other hand, nonlinear sequences present ruptures in the ordination of history regarding the chronology of the fable.
The ruptures are called "chronological deviations or anachronies". These chronological deviations according to three aspects: chronological deviations by address: are of two types: retrospection and anticipation. Retrospection is located in the past and the anticipation in the future. Distance deviations: It is considered that "an event presented in an anachrony is separated in a large or small interval of the present". That is, the distance from the events of the narration determines the temporary separation interval of the events of the present, in addition, the intervals distinguish two types of retrospects: external or external and internal analog.
For a detailed understanding of the aforementioned types of retrospection, he mentions the term period as "the extension of time occupied by anacronia". From the aforementioned it is understood that the retrospections are carried out outside or within the temporary period of the narrative. Deviations by extension: They are related to period and anachronies, emphasizing that there is a way of classifying anachronies into specific and sleeping, this distinction is made through verbal times. He states: “The punctual corresponds to the past indefinite in Spanish and with the aorist in Greek. The sleeping indicates that the action takes longer: in Spanish the imperfect is used to indicate a sleeping aspect ”.
Punctual anachronies refer to a brief event with meaning and durational anachronies allude to a long period of time of the fable. Time for frequency: the relationship of time by frequency is guided by "the numerical relationship between events in the fable and in history". The event will be repeated one or several times in the narrative discourse. The number of repetitions allows differentiating the usual frequency and real repetition. The usual frequency is when the event occurs only once, on the other hand, in the real repetition an event that occurred only once, but was repeated several times is mentioned.