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The Dominican Left and the Democracy of the Country
The Dominican left as a political movement arises very late in our country, in full dictatorship of Generalissimo Rafael Leónidas Trujillo, approximately in the middle of the forties. This political movement develops late since in that period it was that economic bonanzas in Latin America began to be seen due to World War II. There was economic growth in the industrial part, such as the sugar industry, substitute and etc. Those believed as the first organization of the working class was also originated, this was the main support and support for the socialist and communist parties.
In 1944 those that are created as the first actions of Dominican socialist and communist groups are registered. In that year the Dominican Democratic Revolutionary Party. Democratic youth was also formed, which was created under the direction of the leaders of the Dominican Democratic Revolutionary Party. These two political parties or movements aimed several objectives among which some can be mentioned. Among the objectives was that the dictatorship is forced to a real political openness to be able to prevent the re -election of the Trujillo dictator in 1946. But both parties or movement were erased since the repression of the Government of the dictator Trujillo cost him blood through martyrs, militants and supporters imprisoned for several years and those who could survive this regret ended in exile.
A political crisis was generated in the Dominican oligarchy because of the struggle for power after the death of Generalissimo Trujillo, that the Trujillo family came out in November 1961 and that Balaguer also came out in January 1962. This political crisis resulted in the formation of the National Civic Union as a political apparatus to compete with the Trujillista who still remained in the country, on June 14 that represented the progressive part and other democratic movements, such as the Dominican Revolutionary Party. These groups sought a viable solution to the crisis that went according to the guidelines of what was the "Alliance for Progress", which was to organize elections for the month of December 1962 by the state rabbit, which was createdby representatives that the United States of America command.
The electoral process that gave in December 1962 it is important. This dirty campaign focused on giving a professor with Cuba and communism. The campaign brought as a reaction to the opinion of a debate between a Jesuit pastor of the Catholic Church Mr. Lautico García and the candidate Professor Juan Bosch, in which Jesuit priest was called a communist, but said debate culminated with the overwhelming victory of the victory of theJuan Bosch. Mr. Lautico García had to give statements by putting as his false testimony. These elections resulted in Professor Bosch with a wide majority of 60 %. Those who knew themselves as the Left Party were two, the Popular Socialist Party and the Dominican Popular Movement, which for two reasons could not participate in the 1962 elections. The first reason was that there was an anti -communist legislation that prevented him from participating, which was a law of the remnant of the Trujillo dictatorship. The second reason was that they did not have enough economic resources and lacked personnel to have a good performance in these elections.
The June 14 movement was an organization with great power at that time, it had so much power since its ideals were reflected in the Cuban Revolutionary process, which came to power with weapons and blood. But this party did not participate in the elections, its supporters and leaders decided to support Professor Juan Bosch, who was the candidate of the Dominican Revolutionary Party. Juan Bosch’s government was 7 months. The Catholic Church at its highest level with the National Civic Union what we call the Alliance of the Dominican oligarchy, the military who were representative of the United States and the high instances of our military bodies overthrew our first honest president and elected with atrue democracy in the twentieth century on September 25, 1963. The response that brought this military coup was that the left in its June 14 movement was built with weapons against the coup government, which ended the death of its founder Manuel Tavarez Justo and as some 30 of his men.
In the 1966 elections it was the first leftist with the June 14 movement, I carry as a senator the National District Julio De Peña Valdez, as a candidate for the National District to Mr. José Espaillat and as a candidate for deputy for deputyAlso by the National District Mr. Rafael Taveras (FAFA). I can’t get any seats in which he competed.
In the 12 -year government of Dr. Joaquín Balaguer, between 1966 and 1978, the leftist movements and the Dominican Revolutionary Party were oppressed by said government with terror. The militants, leaders and supporters of these movements were persecuted and almost always resulted in death. In the elections of 1970 and 1974, relief was imposed, which was an electoral abstention of the movements opposed to the government.
In October 1977, the Patriotic Union Movement was founded, which was formed by clandestine organizations, headed by the Red Line of June 14 to participate in the 1978 elections. In the 1978 elections the Dominican Communist Party also entered into the contest. The Patriotic Union movement decided to withdraw its candidates 48 hours before elections and support the candidate of the Dominican Revolutionary Party to avoid political fraud orchestrated by the government of Dr. Joaquín Balaguer. The government’s military entered the night of the day of the elections to the Central Electoral Board and prevented the vote counting. From that conflict the reformist party that was that of the ruler in combination with the JCE are stealing legislative and obtains a majority in Congress and also managed justice. This means that I believe a security environment (impunity) for him and its leaders.
In the 1978 elections the left headed by the candidate for the Presidency of the Republic, Narciso Isa Conde, of the Dominican Communist Party obtained 9,828 votes. Then in the 1982 elections the Dominican left participated with four political movements, participated divided into two groups. One was made up of the Dominican Communist Party with the support of movement for socialism, which managed to obtain 18,481 votes and the other group was made up. For a total of 33,731 votes for the Dominican left.
At present, the Dominican left groups such as Alianza País and Frente Amplio are insignificant groups when comparing them with the great PLD, PRM, PRD, PRSC games.
In conclusion, in our opinion the Dominican left was at one time a social struggle axis that gave its result. But the globalization of democratic ideas and way of thinking and ideologies have made the left at least in the Dominican Republic. Today the Dominican left is in its minimum expression represented in political parties. In our opinion you have no reason to be. The Dominican Republic is a democratic country in our way to see reality.