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The discrimination of the Colonial Quito and Current Quito
From the colonial Quito discrimination towards a certain group, the indigenous people, has been rooted in our society and can be seen in the documentary memory of Quito. In addition, not only indigenous people suffer discrimination today, but also some vulnerable groups such as migrants, mainly Venezuelans.
In some events, segregation is shown in greater way as in the last unemployment of 02 until October 13, 2019, in Ecuador, mainly in Quito, there was the greatest concentration of violence, discrimination and media attention. There are several types of discrimination, but we will focus on racism and aporophobia during national strike, we will use the documentary memory of Quito as a base.
In turn, we will use definitions such as Adela Cortina for aporophobia, Michel Foucault’s for racism and the Royal Academy of the Spanish Language. And, finally, the Constitution of Ecuador and the Organic Integral Code and its articles, discrimination and hate crimes.
How has racism been manifested from colonial Quito until today and new forms of discrimination as apoophobia have been shown so carefully in the unemployment of October?
To respond to this, we will see how from colonial Quito has maintained racism to the present day, later, we will focus on how these discriminatory behaviors, aporophobia and racism have been perpetuated, and emerged in this last strike, finally, how theLaw attacks this.
First, the colonial Quito has led to several behaviors that today continue to persist in our society in a very rooted way one of them is the racism that is defined by Michel Foucault as:
The development of a biological-social racism is based on the idea (which is absolutely new and will work the discourse in a different way) according to which the other race is not the one that came from outside, it is not what for a certain time hastriumphed and dominated, but that which permanently, relentless, infiltrates the social body. (Foucault, 1996)
This type of racism has initially rooted in society by the Creoles, although these as Foucault says they have not been the breed that has triumphed and dominated in the country, in the documentary memory of Quito, it is seen that it has been perpetuated since thefirst photographic records existing to this day. It is evidenced towards the indigenous people making a comparison with the ancient photographic records, which were taken because they had some physical anomaly or because the natives are deleted so that they do not appear, and with videos and photos of the current Quito, before they are prohibitedBulls.
On the other hand, the Royal Spanish Academy defines racism as exacerbation of the racial sense of an ethnic group that usually motivates the discrimination or persecution of another or others with which it lives. This is displayed in the documentary with a constant contrast between the past and the present showing that, despite the course of time, it is in force in the Quito, racism, always seeking to invisible the indigenous as in the historic center where street vendors, inMost, are indigenous and seek to stop being there because they shave the city.
Also, looking for ways of differentiating them towards them denying our ancestors, differentiating the popular areas, for example, the tingo spa and that of elites such as bullfights where only the "Spaniards", quiteños with Spanish characteristics and dressed in their bestgarments, participate.
Likewise, in the last unemployment of the month of October the company was divided between those who supported unemployment and those that do not. Several discriminatory publications were seen against indigenous Protestants saying that they have returned to their homes, as well as some public figures expressed their opinion, Nebot said in an interview: "Recommend them that they stay in the moor" (Romero, 2019). This is racism, since, as we saw with the definitions above, a group is rejected by its ethnic group.
On the other hand, against Venezuelans they manifested that they return to their homeland, that they are up to Maduro, to stop being infiltrated. All these attitudes as Adela Cortina defines is not xenophobia, but aporophobia:
Really, xenophilia cannot be called the feeling that political refugees and poor immigrants arouse in any of the countries. It is not an attitude of love and friendship abroad. But it is not a feeling of xenophobia, because what produces rejection and aversion is not that they come from outside, that it is from another race or ethnicity, the foreigner does not bother to be.
Annoying, yes, that they are poor, to come to complicate the life of those who, bad that, we are defending ourselves, that they do not bring resources, but problems but problems but problems. That is why it cannot be said that these are cases of xenophobia. They are palpable samples of aporophobia, rejection, aversion, fear and contempt for the poor, towards the homeless who, at least in appearance, cannot return anything good in return. Venezuelans are segregated by their economic condition, there is no wealthy migrant rejected.
In Spain thanks to this new term that has been born and is already accepted at the Royal Academy of Spain, a bill has been sent to include hatred to the poor, apopheophia, as aggravating. Finally, the law is responsible for protecting people and that these acts do not happen, although they are very present. This is seen in the Constitution of Ecuador:
The exercise of rights will be governed by the following principles
All people are the same and will enjoy the same rights, duties and opportunities. No one can be discriminated against ethnicity, place of birth, age, sex, gender identity, cultural identity, marital status, language, religion, ideology, political affiliation, judicial past, socio -economic status, migratory status, sexual orientation, state ofhealth, carry HIV, disability, physical difference;nor for any other distinction, personal or collective, temporary or permanent, which aims or resulting or canceling the recognition, enjoyment or exercise of rights.
The law shall punish all forms of discrimination. The State will adopt affirmative action measures that promote real equality in favor of the rights holders that are in inequality.
People are protected and it is prohibited from being discriminated against either in any of its forms, here it is also presence, even if the aporophobia is not told because it will not be discriminated against by their socioeconomic status. Despite this, comparing with Spain, we do not have the aporophobia as aggravating. Even so, the Organic Integral Criminal Code defends people because it establishes:
The person who commits acts of physical or psychological violence of hate, against one or more people because of their nationality, ethnicity, place of birth, age, sex, gender identity or sexual orientation, cultural identity, marital status, language, religion, ideology, socioeconomic status, migratory status, disability, health status or HIV, will be sanctioned with imprisonment of one to three years. If the acts of violence cause injuries to the person, it will be sanctioned with the sentences of deprivation of liberty provided for the crime of aggravated injuries in a third. If the acts of violence produce the death of a person, it will be sanctioned with imprisonment of twenty -six years old to twenty -six years.
In this way, people will be able to raise any complaint for acts of hatred something that is very common to see everywhere in shopping centers, walking down the street and even in family gatherings. Our legislation also gives refugee quality to people, which helps these people have a greater quality that protects them.
Racism has almost always manifested in the same way as it can be seen in the documentary memory of Quito, it has always tried to separate, minimize with measures such as those used in the historic center or simply separating them and permanently leaving them in aZone, the Páramo, although in the final they are an essential part in the economy because they are responsible for supplying the domestic market of the country.
In spiteAs methodical as if because of the moor, "low resources" could not have the same capacities as all.
On the other hand, Venezuelans rather than racism are discriminated against by aporophobia because as they come from abroad without resources they are not pleasant in our country, our jobs are stolen, steal and steal, etc., Many of these comments are not a reflection of racism because they are not attacked that they are Venezuelans, but that they are poor.
Although these types of behaviors have always been present we could see them better during unemployment, precisely because of this chaos, people begin to express contradictory attitudes to those they have daily. Unfortunately, although changes have been raised, mainly, in education there is a longDiscrimination in general of aporophobia against all those migrants who arrive due to problems in their country.