The Different Philosophical Theories

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The different philosophical theories


Of all the beings that inhabit the earth, man is the only being with the constant concern of knowledge and privileged in making use of reason to respond to their existence. Since ancient times, thinkers or philosophers have elucidated different ways of approaching knowledge. Aristotle is one of the greatest exponents of philosophy and considered that one of the main virtues of man was "knowledge" and reason since this made us free as rational beings, giving importance to knowledge as a tool of the human being formake use as only thinking. This discipline called philosophy was born and appears more than two thousand years ago in ancient Greece in the seventh century to.C thanks to a Greek sage Tales of Milet. (Upload.Wikimedia.Org, 2010).

Mario Bunge, he says in his writings "while the lower animals are only in the world, man tries to understand it" (Martínez, 2005). Which explains that man is in the insatiable search for his origin, his transcendence, purposes and vicissitudes that he presents in the passage of the days finding answers allows him to use this reason and is what is part ofits essence as a human being. Reason has provided man the ability to understand the world around him to find answers that satisfy his thirst to know, because this reason frees man from ignorance.

Philosophy is based on those responses of that persistent and permanent knowledge that the human being constantly intends. Philosophy was born as a contribution to man and society. Next, fundamental concepts and characteristics of philosophy and its doctrines are described.


The word philosophy comes from the Greek Filo, which in turn comes from Fileo, which means love, friendship and, Sofia, which means wisdom;Therefore, it is concluded that, at least etymologically, philosophy is nothing other than love or friendship for wisdom and consequently, the philosopher is the lover or friend of knowledge. However, defining what is philosophy has been a dilemma because there are so many ways to interpret it that it would be difficult to determine an exact definition of the same. However, the most common and classical concept can be said that philosophy is the science of all things for its ultimate causes, and that it is acquired by the light of reason. It is said that to talk about philosophy is to talk about the same man of his thinking about his essence of knowing himself and the world, in addition to mentioning that this so -called philosophy is based on an existential question, which is linked to the question about being, for knowledge, for history, by society, by the existence even of God.

Immanuel Kant, referring and summarizes this question in four philosophical questions, what can I do?, What should I do? What can expect? What is man?, This philosophical question has tried to be radical, rational and grounded. In which there is an insatiable search to make use of this reason to answer these existential questions that in a certain way allow man to feel as discovered as thinking and being social. Often people often express to possess a specific philosophy for meaning that they have a certain ideology and way of thought, all men naturally have the desire to know and that is what leads them to build and choose a philosophical praxis that fillsYour expectations.

Philosophy to characterize as philosophy must have: 

  • Rational-intelective, because it is based on reason
  • Methodic and orderly, while using methods to face all of your topics, and that your knowledge since the method of philosophy is reflective.
  • Totalitarian, carry out the objects of study in an integral way since globalize all knowledge.
  • Critic, while he is subject to criticism since he questions things, that is, he submits to the question of why? Of every thing or situation
  • Deep and fundamental, it is made up of laws of thought with reality.
  • Problematic, the truth is not enough and causes that there are always questions, dilemmas and questions.


To give a more transcendental advance to philosophy and with the evolution of the way of thinking of the human being and the contribution of science. Doctrine is called a set of principles or positions, teachings, instructions, postulates and/or opinions that are possessed and taught in a political, social, religious, philosophical, scientific and different nature that are related to a certain knowledge within a certain knowledge withinPhilosophy highlights more relevant doctrines. (Bembibre, 2009)

Inmanuel Kant was the one who coined the term of gnoseology to refer to an etymologically theory of knowledge this doctrine derives from the Greek word gnosis (knowledge) and logo (treated or study) which is based on human knowledge, its origin, nature, thelimits of our powers to know. The epistemology or philosophy of knowledge, is born from the Greek voices episteme (science) and logo (treaty or study) doctrine that studies the knowledge of the sciences or theory of sciences, which investigates the structure, foundations and methods of scientific systems,also study the relationships between the sciences, their classification, the problem of scientific research, the use of science, etc. On the other hand, semiotics is another doctrine part of philosophy that is characterized by the meaning of signs the signaling forms that go from the most natural languages to the most complex languages. It is divided into three large groups. The philosophical syntax that studies the internal structure of the signs and the philosophical semantics that studies the relationships between signs and objects;In addition to the philosophical pragmatic that deals with the sign systems and the subject that uses them. This doctrine has contributed to other branches such as linguistics, grammar, psychology, language, and culture sciences.

Etymologically the word axiology derives from axios which means value, dignity and logos;Treaty that is defined as the science that studies the values, the universal principles its foundations and scope, so it is known as the theory of values to it, the ethics that is a doctrine that originates from the word ethos (custom,character, temperament and habit) is also one that will regulate human actions being the reflection of the consciousness of the way of being of a society and its morals as such . The object of study of ethics is human behavior and behavior, ethics is closely linked to morality and both govern the good actions of individuals, is divided into the ethics of regulations (codes of good and bad)and moral theory (origin, developments and its laws) . The philosophy of art is the aesthetics that is one of the most subtle branches of the philosophical because it is dedicated to exalting the beauty of nature itself the art of beautiful and the origin of beauty highlight its value . Logic is another of the doctrines that complement this great field of philosophy. 

According to Irving m. Copi and Carl Cohen, in their work Introduction to logic, tells us that "logic is the study of the methods and principles that are used to distinguish the good (correct) reasoning of the bad (incorrect)" ". Logic has become the human being the ideal way to make supreme to reason and the same intelligence capacity of which man has been privileged. The central axis of logic is inference and valid reasoning, reasoning, language, mathematics and dialectic, highlighting that logic derives a sub -branch dialectical logic which has to do with the development of the objective world andthe laws that govern the knowledge of the truth. This logic uses types of reasoning that seem true but in the end they turn out to be false to this is what is known as fallacies with this, what it intends is to convince the receiver to assume it and conclusion as true despite being false. Ontology investigates and treats being and its ontical structures is formed by four objects, real objects, ideal objects, metaphysical values and values, ontology is linked to the transcendence of being. Metaphysics complements Ontology on the contrary, this philosophy treats the being, but what exists and what is, its origin of life, birth, and the essence of being as matter. Finally, you cannot stop mentioning philosophical anthropology takes the same man as a study and studies it how to be natural, social and spiritual, pays attention to its evolution through history and what it is in its present, focusingAlso in its corporeal and physical structure to man as essence . It should be noted that the most illustrious doctrines have been mentioned However, there are other doctrines that are also part of philosophy.  

However, man is building his own ideologies, with the course of time, related to what he is learning in his diary or living, philosophy is never static, thought is probably one day one day can be thought in a way and after a period a periodThink totally different from the philosophy we preached before;or in another situation do not change and be decisive and firm in the same philosophy. It can be said that philosophy is like a universal language.


Philosophy is a discipline in charge of the science of knowledge and reason, based on the rational philosophical question of man linked to the reason for its origin, nature, and everything that concerns its history as a thinking and transcendental being. Being the philosophical question that which he took out of ignorance through the "reason".

Philosophy is characterized by being rational -intelective, methodical and orderly, totalitarian, critical, deep -fundamental, and problematic.

Philosophical doctrines are a set of principles, positions, teachings linked to specific knowledge. The relevant philosophical doctrines are gnoseology, epistemology, semiotics, axiology, ethics, aesthetics, logic, metaphysics, ontology and philosophical anthropology.

Bibliographic references

  • Martínez. B (2005) "An introduction to philosophical thought", notes of philosophy;Digital Editorial National Printing;Costa Rica. Recovered from: https: // www.Printing.Go.CR/Editorialdigital/Books/Literature%20Costarricense/Notes_de_filosofia_edincr.PDF
  • Bembibre. V (2009) "Definition of doctrine", Definition ABC Your Easy Dictionary. Recovered from: https: //
  • Upload.Wikimedia.Org (2010) "Philosophy: the origin of philosophy". Recovered from: https: //

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