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The different forms of reasoning in people
The need to transcend the limitations of our positional perspectives is important in moral political philosophy, and in theory of law. The release of positional isolation constitutes a challenge that ethical, political and legal thinking has to assume.
Observation and knowledge positionality
Transcend positional knowledge is central to epistemology. Those we can see is not independent of where we are in relation to what we try to see, in turn can influence our beliefs, our understanding and our decisions. Observations, beliefs and positionally dependent options can be important for the knowledge company, as well as the practical reason. Indeed, epistemology in decisions and ethics theory have to take note of the dependence of observations and inferences with respect to the observer’s position.
The positional variation of the observations constitutes an elementary issue. The observation is not, obviously, independent of the position, and the two celestial bodies, the observation is not obviously independent of the position. Even when in the positional reference it is not explicitly involved in observation, it is a positional statement that could be expressed so;From here on earth, the sun and the moon seem similar in size. Observers can also do an assertion about how things look good from a different position than they currently occupy.
The lighting and the illusion of provisionality
The positional dependence of the results of the observation can both illuminate and confuse, the two aspects of positional variability respond to different issues, but none is entirely subjective. What can be called positional objectivity deals with the objectivity of what can be observed from a specific position, the subject of objective evaluation in a positional sense is something that can be found by anyone in a creamy observation position. The issue in this case is the way in which the object appears from the specific observation position, and the way in which it would appear before any of the same positional characteristics. Positional variations in observations can hardly be attributed to subjectivity, an observation is not necessarily a statement on the special functioning of a person’s mind. Identify a phenomenon with physical qualities with interdependence of anyone’s mind.
Positional objectivity can effectively be the proper understanding of objectivity, depending on the exercise in which we are involved, does not break the positional objectivity to make a statement about how the world would seem to a person with certain "specific" positional "attributes. It matters to note that the issue here does not consist of anything can be explained in casual terms, be positionally objective, it would depend on the nature of the variability involved. There is a similar distinction within valuation and politics, it is comparable to the contract among the respective enlightenment and deviation of positionality, following theories about personal responsibilities based on relationships that demand a special role. The lighting aspects of the objectivity position will be relevant.
It is not that a positionally free of prejudices can be needed in this exercise. The search for some kind of understanding of the world regardless of the position I feel is central to ethical lighting that can be sought in a non -rational phenomenon.
Objective illusions and positional objectivity.
When an independent opinion of the position is suitable for an evaluation and epistemological, political ethical, the real observations that depend on the position can be taken into account to explain the difficulty of achieving a positionally free understanding of prejudices.
The need to go beyond the positionability of local observations, within societies with entrenched notion can be very strong. To explain the designated tolerance of social asymmetries and discrimination that is warned in many traditionalist societies, the idea of positional objectivity has a certain scientific contribution that by offering us a vision of the genesis of a legitimate application of positional understanding. The important notion of "objective illusion", used in Marxist philosophy, can also be interpreted from the point of view of positional objectivity, an objective illusion is a positionally objective belief that is, in effect, wrong from the point of view of scrutinyAfter positional.
The falsehood of this belief would then be an illustration of an objective illusion. There is an interesting distrust that G poses. To Cohen in his book Karl Marx "Theory or history about the idea of objective illusion" in Marx theory says that, even the senses deceive us with respect to the construction of the air and the movements of the celestial bodies and those characteristics observed, they are positionally objective but deceitful wrong from the point of view of other ministries of truth and textually more attractive that can be invoked once we go beyond positional perspectives.
Health, morbidity and variations positions.
The idea of objective illusion was used by Marx in the context of class analysis and took the investigation of what I call false awareness, with the concept of objective induction is useful here. The illusion of low morbidity in the socially backward states of India has, in effect, an objective basis, positionally objective for a population with formal education and limited medical experience. The positional objectivity of these, parochially wrong demands attention, and social scientists cannot perform as if they were only subjective and capricious. But these self-perceptions can not be treated as reflections on health and disease in an appropriate transpositional understanding.
Gender discrimination and positional illusions.
In the quality of the objective illusion she was used by Marx in the context of class analysis and led him to the investigation of what he called "false awareness of education in women" and also with the social tendency to see the disparity ofGender as a normal phenomenon, positional objectivity is particularly crucial to understand gender inequality in general. As a result with patterns constitute areas of behavior and is considered simply as legitimate and even as rational and in many parts of the world there is a shared tendency not to notice the systematic deprivation of women compared to men in one land or another.
The positionality and the theory of justice.
It can be limited in practice by the way in which people read the world in which point lives and if the powerful influence of positionality has a dark role in that social understanding, the role of positionality can be crucial in the interpretation ofsystematic and persistent illusions that can influence and distort social understanding and evaluation of public affairs.
Consider a person belonging to a community without familiarity with the projections dependent on the distance, or with any other source of information about the sun and the moon. Lacking relevant conceptual schemes and auxiliary knowledge, that person can decide, based on positional observations. This would, of course, a very peculiar judgment if the person knew of distances and projections, but not if he did not know anything about such. Their belief according to which the sun and the moon are really the same size, in particular, that it would take the same time to turn around them is of course an illusion, but this belief cannot be seen as purely subjective,given all positional characteristics. The illusions associated with some positional objectivity can be very difficult to evict, even when the positionality in question deceives and unfair the place to enlighten.
Overcome positional limitations
In the search for justice, positional illusions can impose barriers that have to be overcome through the expansion of the information base for, one of the reasons why Adam Smith demanded that the perspectives of other origin, including the mostdistant had to be systematically invoked. Positional visions to a supreme vision from anywhere they cannot aspire to complete success. Our thoughts and our perceptions are integrally dependent on our sensory organs, no matter where our understanding of vision with our own eyes depends, our understanding of the outside world is anchored in our experiences and in our thinking that the possibility of going beyondThey can be rather limited. All this does not indicate, however, that positionality cannot be totally or partially surpassed in the way that leads us to a less confined vision. Here also as when choosing the focus of a theory of justice we can reasonably seek comparative degrees and not the utopian objective of transcendence.
Who is our neighbor?
. Literature, language, music, arts, entertainment, religion, medicine, health, politics, no theory of justice can ignore the entire world today with the exception of our own country, or stop having inOur extensive neighborhood tells in the global field, even if efforts are made to persuade them that we should only help our local neighborhoods in overcoming injustice.
We are increasingly linked not only by our mutual economic, social and political relations, but also for shared, uncertain, but long -range concerns, for the injustice and inhumanity that challenge our world, and violence and terrorism that threaten it. Even our frustrations and shared meditations on global helplessness can unite instead of separating. There are very few non -neighbors in today’s world.
Rationality and other people.
The process of maximization in economics is first of all as the result of the conscious choice The exercise of rational choice is interpreted as the released maximization of what a person has the best reason to promote. Jon Reason, the rational actor acts for sufficient reasons due to the belief, more implicit than explicit, that reasoning tends to favor the maximization of what we want to promote or seek said maximization is considered central to the rational behavior for the rational behavior. Economic discipline uses the extreme search to predict which options are considered most feasible, maximization by consumers, the minimization of the cost by producers, a basic methodological issue about the use of maximization in economics that wants some attentionprevious. It refers to the double of use of maximization behavior both prediction device that tries to guess what is likely to happen as a rationality criterion. The contemporary economy raises a key issue of whether the rational choice made of how it could be properly characterized, limited will. Adam Smith in the fifteenth century refers to people’s failure in an entirely rational way, rational choice and emotional behavior, economic science division, authors dictated from rationality, deeply skeptical about said assumption.
The assumption is frequently used without any special defense, when any, store is offered, arguing that, as a rule, this is very close to the truth. This is, a very special effect on descriptive realism and it is not surprising that it has been strongly criticized, Saúl Samuelson who has opined it on controversy and on the methodological aspects in another place.
Rational decisions and real choice
An argument by Herbert Simón in limited rationality refers to the possibility that people may not consider completely rational options in all cases due to their inability to concentrate or remain firm. Several empirical works confirm that the real behavior of people can depart from the complete maximization of their aims and objectives.
The search for self-interest, how can it be characterized less restrictively and more convincingly, the rationality of the choice. The rationality of the option is primarily a matter of supporting our elections, the rational choice discipline is connected from its foundation with harmonizing our options with the critical investigation of the reasons for that choice. This approach is based on the idea of a link between what for us would be rational to choose.
The bases of the election have to survive research based on rigorous reasoning with adequate reflection, this is not of course, the same thing that demand that every time we choose something we have to learn a broad critical scrutiny life would be intolerable if the behaviorrational would demand this. It can be argued that an election would be rational only if you were sustainable if there was a reasoned critical scrutiny. When the reasons for a particular choice are established in our mind through the experience or the formation of habits, we can often choose reasonably without striving too much for the rationality of each decision. Your custom may be based on your implicit reasoning due to your general understanding, sustainable reasoning may exist without explicit scrutiny on each occasion. A single prediction on the real choice of a person Francis Edgeworth spoke about an interesting dictice between the presumption of human behavior on which his common economic analysis was based on the tradition of the current economy and his own belief in the real nature of the real nature of theindividual behavior. Edgeworth observes that the first principle of the economy is for each people to act only for their own interest. The presumption of the absolute selfishness of the human being has come to dominate the prevailing economic theory, while many of the great practitioners of the discipline have also expressed serious doubts about the veracity of such assumption.
The first authors of the subject, such as Aristotle and the medieval cultors of discipline as Saint Thomas Aquinas, and Maimonides, considered ethics as an important part of the understanding of human behavior and attributed to their principles a relevant role in social relations in social relations. Smith is often seen as a defender of the presumption of the exclusive search for self-interest, in the form of the so -called economic man is discussed the limitations of the assumption about a universal search for self-interest.
A large part of the modern economy has been deceived by the simplicity of ignoring all the different motivations of the search for self-interest, calling the theory of rational choice has turned this false uniformity of human behavior in the basic principle of rationality. The theory of rational choice considers that the rationality of the choice is characterized by the intelligent search for self-interest, you do not need to rule out the possibility that a person can feel sympathy or antipathy towards others. It assumes that rational people not only have to be selfish but also be distanced from others.
Professor Gary Becker, has offered a lucid exposure of the HAV -broader way to be systematic to sympathy for others as part of human feeling.