- Show more
THE DEVELOPMENT OF LIBERALISM
According to Lara’s expression, liberalism is defined as the theory that defends freedom, in general, of all members of society. In a more concrete sense liberalism is the set of ideas that, both in political and economic matters, reflects the ideals of the 19th century bourgeoisie. For Lara, nineteenth -century Europe was characterized, by the great revolutions that had an important role for the reunification of nations. Similarly, the wave of revolutions such as that of 1920, 1930 and 1948 were heirs of the French Revolution and the Enlightenment.
A main characteristic was to be able to create liberal constitutions towards the monarchy of the time. Among other words, to be able to give the people what they deserved and not leave them outdoors, living hunger and lack of basic needs. On the other hand, according to Eric Hobsbawn, several ideologies are presented in the development of liberalism, but always taken to the same main element that is the revolution. Reference is made to economic and political liberalism. Both go hand in to be able to talk about the social aspect. In economic liberalism, it is born linked to the industrial revolution.
Knowing that man cannot work at the same rate as a machine. Not always the economic side of a nation will depend on the worker’s rhythm. The main country, according to Moisés Ascarrunz, who is a precursor to the economic aspect, is England, who defends and disseminates the main aspects of economic liberalism. In fact, this new doctrine, with modifications and transformations, coincide with the British domain of the world economy and politicians during the last century. In political liberalism, some indexes of freedom of expression are generated.
Of press, religious and rejection of censorship. According to Oscar René Vargas, political liberalism unites bourgeois, peasants, intellectuals and workers, facing common and presenting itself as a political ideology that fights the absolutism of restoration. Similarly, it opposes absolutism and enlightened despotism, it becomes the main foundation to combat the minority circle of bourgeois people who decided on the people. Piero Gobetti, states that the liberal revolutions in the European continent around the 19th century.
They produced modernity in society and the openness to democratic processes in the world in world. This implied that there is an intrinsic link between citizens with their civil rights and property, those who lack it are, thus, second -category citizens, without authentic power to influence the social sphere, so that, for example, for example, they had no right to an opinion. According to Eric Hobsbawn, the three revolutions with the greatest influence, are those of, 1820, 1830 and 1848. Revolutions usually produce changes in the different aspects that make up a specific society.
If the circumstances are favorable, following one, another can be generated. All this was presented in the transitions of events. The revolutionary wave of 1820, Piero Gobetti, occurred in southern Europe. It was generally produced by small groups, mostly known as Masons. Much of the time, generating coup d’etats. In Spain, a coup against Fernando VII’s absolutist regime implemented a liberal regime for three years, the so -called liberal triennium. According to Montañez, the concrete conditions surrounded by the establishment of the liberal regime in 1820.
Produced the resistance by the monarchy, emancipation of the colonies, depression of agricultural prices, etc. They had a determining influence on the prohibitionist option adopted. The revolutionary wave of 1830, as Moisés Ascarrunz details, unlike the previous one, was not only formed by small groups with revolutionary ideas, but, it was a more popular wave with the participation of the people. Its development was in northern Europe. In France, absolutism was overthrown in its entirety, and starting a new and small liberal regime.
This revolution was known as the three glorious. According to Aydillo, they were the three glorious, which took place during the 27th, 28, July 29, in which popular masses encouraged by the liberal ideals of the bourgeoisie, defeated the monarchical faction and forced Carlos X to flee from France. Finally, the revolutionary wave of 1848. Widely detailed by Eric Hobsbawn, which, the great engines for the revolution were democratic liberalism and nationalism. Again, France is the main participant in this revolution, the people destroy Luis Felipe de Orleans.
And achieves the establishment of a democratic republic. Subsequently, the socialist group generates a small revolution which did not last long, since it was crushed by the Republic, according to Piero Gobetti. One of the elections wins Luis Napoleon who was nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte himself, in his period of government he turned his regime into a dictatorship and ended up taking the title of Emperor under the name of Napoleon III. Finally, from this, the second French empire is born. In the European continent, after being a participant in these three revolutions, changes in political, social and economic aspects were generated.
Finally, the old regime had disappeared in its entirety. However, there were still pending issues that could not be overlooked for an egalitarian society. Democracy had barely begun to advance. It would be imposed in western Europe and other developed countries from the middle of the nineteenth century, although it would do more through political reforms than through revolutions. Topics such as slavery were still present in different underdeveloped countries, on the other hand, there was still no female suffrage.