- Show more
The design of learning environments and educational models
It is true that with technological advances and their immersion in the educational field, many favorable changes have emerged on the other hand, new challenges have also been created for all the actors that are the teaching-learning process. Within these changes, education experts realized that learning not only occurred in the classroom, but could also be carried out in other “environments” (Tinoco, 2015) since the change of places orAreas to develop our learning has a lot to do with how to have a different point of view of the events that we hold in our daily lives below we will see the definition of learning environment and some aspects related to them.
There is a wide variety of opinions and concepts regarding this term. In the analysis of an educational situation by Duarte (s/f), the following stands out: the environment is conceived as a daily construction, daily reflection, permanent singularity that ensures diversity and with it the richness of life in relation, isa subject who acts with the human being and transforms him. It is a space in motion, where collaborators develop capacities, competences, skills and values.
Challenges and compatibilities are immersed are the challenges, challenges and provocations that are generated from their own initiatives or those incorporated by promoters, educators and facilitators among others, also strengthen a process of autonomy in the group and promote the development ofvalues.
According to Wilson, a learning environment is a "place" or a "space" where learning occurs. Another definition is: a set of physical space and the relationships that appear in it, it is a whole of objects, smells, shapes, colors, sounds, people who inhabit and relate in a physical framework that contains everything and at the same timeIt is contained by these elements that beat within it, as if they had life.
This very important space being in our way of acting if the aviente is quiet shows a way to perceive the situation will be linked to an internal peace, overcoming it, but if the environment becomes noisy, our perception will vary according to the state of the area, therole that plays learning environments for our form of perception and action in life.
Duarte concludes that the educational environment are the interactions produced in the environment, are the organization and spatial disposition, the relationships established between the elements of its structure, the behavior guidelines that are developed therein, the type of relationship that people maintains withthe objects, the interactions that occur between the people, the roles that are established, the criteria that prevail and the activities that are carried out.
In other words
Learning environments and educational models
It is important to detail that not all learning environments are valid for all educational models in the intention of achieving academic excellence since space is an inherent part of the quality of education. That is, learning environments must move according to the territory to which they belong, since an educational model is “a compilation or synthesis of different pedagogical theories and approaches, which guide teachers in the elaboration of the study programs and inthe systematization of the teaching and learning process "
It is considered that learning environments occur to the extent that the elements that compose it interact with each other. It is a curricular element and depends on the level of congruence with the educational model, that is, the theoretical assumptions that define a certain educational model condition the learning environment and the meaning with which they are used where the educational models can be given to bedifferent have different learning environments.
One of the ways of directing education has to do with these learning areas that are conditioned according to the educational model in a defined context so that learning is optimal to the situations that we live day by day.
Learning environments: components, dimensions, elements and conditions.
To describe the elements, components, dimensions and conditions that should be considered when planning and designing a quality learning environment, we will begin by talking about the elements. For Duarte
"The classroom is where the most faithful and truths interactions between the protagonists of intentional education, teachers and students" are staging ".
While Viesca, highlights the contents, containers, materials, tools, production and exercise spaces, exhibition spaces and equipment.
Madrazo (2004) mentions that a learning environment is composed of four spaces: physical, social, disciplinary and institutional, coincides with what María Lina Iglesias Forneiro points out, by raising the learning environment as a four -dimensional structure;physical dimension, in which the physical space is explained;the functional dimension, the way in which the spaces are used;The temporal dimension is linked to the organization of time and finally the dimensional relationship that refers to the different relationships established within the classroom and have to do with aspects linked to the different ways of accessing the spaces.
On the other hand, Moreno considers that time, is the component for them to happen at the moments and rhythms established by the institution;The interaction is the communicative exchange of at least two actors, involved in such a way that they obtain notorious changes that can be located at different levels;The follow -up, which seeks to observe the experience that each of the actors lives in the environment;The orientation is a series of elements that contribute to transparency in the functioning of the environment for administrators, teachers and students and the integration in time and space.
It is of great importance the past experiences that form experience to locate students and teachers to social relationships through these naturally provided environments that seeks to establish notorious cabios today today.
As for the evaluation of the learning environment, for churches, it is a four -phase cyclic process. The first is the identification of the dimensions and variables to be obtained, the observation of the significant aspects of each dimension and see how it manifests, the third, to analyze and reflect on the pedagogical and educational implications comparison-valuation and the fourth, the intervention, the interventionTo analyze the possibilities of change and propose alternatives with a critical attitude through observation, analysis and reflections.
To assimilate the processes that are lived in learning environments, it will be necessary to consider the different dimensions. For Carlos Pergolis (2000, pp.33-34 cited by Duarte, J. s/f) There are three dimensions: the school as a place of the city, the school as training for the city and the school as a meeting point.
There are also other dimensions, Viesca mentions some dimensions, such as: intention, profile, time, place, curriculum, interactivity, products, while Iglesias mentions: physics, which is space and how it is organized;the functional, so that it is used and under what conditions;The storm, when and how it is used and the relational, who and under what conditions.
In order for a learning environment to take place in accordance with the provisions of the institution there must be the conditions established for this purpose. Andrade, e. It raises three conditions;the delimited, the definition of the contents as well as of the complexity, the levels and acceptability of the development of the competences;The structured, the contents must be organized in concept maps that guide the planning of activities and flexible, the development of new criteria for the administration of the curriculum.
Duarte mentions that some of the needs identified such as the backbone of education that provide clues to think of educational environments can be: problem approach, design and execution of solutions, research analytical capacity, teamwork, decision -making and planning of the planning of theWork, skills and skills of comprehensive reading and oral and written expression, mathematical logical reasoning capacity, management of computer technology and digital language, knowledge of foreign languages, ability to solve problematic situations. To design a learning environment, the teacher must take into account that information and communication technologies are radically changing the environment in which students learned. Consequently, if a space of the school, the community and the classroom as a learning environment could be used before, now distant spaces can be used as part of the teaching context.
Enriquez explains that the teacher is central in the classroom for the generation of environments that favor learning by acting as a mediator designing student -centered learning situations;generating motivating and significant situations for students, which encourages autonomy to learn, develop critical and creative thinking, as well as collaborative work. It is in this sense, that it is appropriate.
The school constitutes a learning environment under this perspective, which assumes the organization of common spaces, since learning environments do not occur spontaneously, since the teaching intervention when integrating them, building and using them as such.
It would of no use if a space is modified by introducing innovations in its materials if closed, vertical, merely instructional educational actions and practices are kept unalterable. Therefore, the transforming role of the classroom is in the hands of the teacher, decision making and the opening and coherence between his democratic discourse and his actions, and the problematization and critical reflection that he makes of his practice and his placein front of the others.
Constructivist learning environments
In addition to the use of spaces and elements to directly or indirectly support learning, which allows the interactions between students and the teacher since it must act as a mediator between the experiences of the students and the knowledge to be built. Therefore the dimension of interaction plays a determining role because school coexistence is understood as that set of interpersonal relationships between members of an educational community and generate a certain school climate.
The values, the forms of organization, the spaces of real or virtual interaction, the way to face the conflicts, the expression of emotions, the type of protection that is provided to the students, and other aspects configure in each school a special way of living togetherwhich influences the quality of learning, students training and in the school environment.
Learning based on individuals’ experiences, what the real world provides them and their previous knowledge will be those that allow them intellectual growth.
Manuel Esteban argues that the constructivist model is “… part of a problem, question or project as a core of the environment for which several interpretation systems and intellectual support derived from their surroundings are offered” where the student has to solve the problemor find the answer to the questions asked.
It also mentions five types of learning: ask and answer questions, compare examples, solve problems, finish projects;learning based on questions;Learning based on examples;project -based learning, problem -based learning.
When we give students the opportunity to develop these types of questions, they are more interested in discovering, investigating and in the same way they are eager to comment or publiccompanions. This is where knowledge can be socialized and has a high level of concretion.
Educational quality and learning environments
The quality of education implies that all students reach educational purposes and learning environments become the essential environment to achieve it. Romero (1997), cited in Duarte’s work, says that "spaces enshrine power relations, both in the pedagogical process and in the organizational and government power". Being that learning environments are one of the key factors for educational quality, since the learning environment allows to intensify training in students due to their pedagogical mediation and other characteristics that it possesses.
Instructional design and learning environment
The instructional design is the systemic, planned and structured process that must be carried out to produce courses for face -to -face or online education, either at the training or training level, modules or didactic units, learning objects and in general educational resourcesthat go far beyond the contents.
An instructional design model is based on learning theories and goes from the definition of what the teacher wants the student to learn- learning objectives- to the training evaluation of the process. In a broader sense, the instructional design allows detailing the activities of the design, development, implementation and evaluation of training proposals.
This design as a planning axis for production and implementation, benefits both teachers and students. Using an instructional design model facilitates the elaboration of the material, also facilitates the management of the process to the teachers and the execution of the students, hence the importance that said model is appropriate to the needs of the institution and especially toThe needs of the students.
He must also guide the student to build his own knowledge;When analyzing needs, goals;developing plans to achieve educational goals and objectives in such a way the educational actions, and the development of the didactic material constitute the main functions of this instructional design, as stated by the theory of behavior modification which considers behavior as the only measure ofTruth of Psychology.
Every institution has a vision, mission, graduation profile and general objectives per semester/matter, as well as specific objectives;Teachers must know the programs and the aforementioned to achieve those goals.
For Turrent, the instructional design “is the development of a plan or system that promotes the achievement of educational goals and objectives…” which can be understood as a guide that indicates the path that must follow the activities designed in a learning environment, it isTherefore that they should not separate. According to Turrent, the current instructional design is characterized by the following features:
- The fundamental didactic magnitudes are focused on learning activities and the student
- didactic actions are considered as development, configuration of learning environments and learning tasks
- Teaching-learning systems are considered as reproducible products of scientifically founded and proven development processes
- Didactic quality is defined by its functionality, transcendence and quality of life
- The media (in the broadest sense) are used in the structuring of media learning environments
- It can be considered as a process, but also as a product.
Its stages are:
- Identification of educational needs
- Preparation of the objective of the educational program
- Identification, selection and organization of contents
- Preparation of learning objectives
- Learning Strategies Planning
- Evaluation planning: learning and educational program
Finally we can conclude that learning environments add a significant dimension to the student’s educational experience, which allows to attract their attention, interest, provide information, stimulate the use of skills, communicating limits and expectations, facilitating learning activities, promoting theguidance and strengthen the desire to learn. Learning environments are scenarios built to intentionally favor learning situations.
Even more at the time when technologies are covering a great level, you interact between children and adolescents by disconnecting these areas that are very important in the development of people in their lives, it is necessary to intercept these disadvantages that make us very missing foradjust and develop them efficiently and continuously.
We also find some components, dimensions and elements of a learning environment that will allow us to thoroughly understand what it contains and the elements that will benefit us in the process. However, to design a learning environment, some educational needs such as: problems, design and execution of solutions, research analytical capacity, teamwork, comprehensive reading skills, technology management, among others, among others, should be taken into account.
Concluding, learning environments are the framework where learning processes are developed, since they allow the intensification of training in students due to their pedagogical mediation and to which they represent the realization of educational action.
- Duarte. (s.F.). Learning environments A conceptual approach. Ibero -American Education Magazine. Obtained from http: // cvonline.UAEH.Edu.mx