The Creation Of Botanical Gardens

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The creation of botanical gardens


The Botanical Garden is born from the need of man to domesticate plants to understand their nature, take advantage of their food values ​​and deepen the technique of selection, hybridization and classification. For years we have resting gardens, recreation, and those of scientific use which they called "simple gardens", this being the term they would use to identify them and with which medicinal plants are also recognized. In ancient al-Andalus. Thirteenth century, the first botanical garden was built, due to the need to be able to have a bit of nature in homes. 


The idea was to create a garden that everyone could visit. Botanical Garden of Padua (1545). It was built in Padua (Italy) in 1545, it was called >> The garden of Padua plants >> managed by the University of Montpellier. They play a very important role in the conservation of the genetic resources of vegetables. One of the objectives of the Botanical Garden is the collection and conservation of local or exotic plants, and the protection of species at risk of extinction. There are specific gardens called National Botanical Conservatories, such as Mascarin. 

The conservation and protection of species that are threatened or in danger of extinction, in this way the reproduction of new species is born. The works carried out in the Botanical Garden include taxonomy, (study of botany) as well as the adaptation of species that are outside their habitat of origin. All data that are collecting are used for agriculture, industry or medicinal research. We can learn a lot from plants, the collections already labeled that help the study of systematization are taught (science that aims to rename and classify plants in a certain order).

Many gardens have stores, where flowers, herbs and plants are sold in seedbeds suitable for transplantation. There are educational projects that are presented within these gardens: plant presentations, cultivation tips. The protection of biodiversity and the transition of natural heritage passes, necessarily, through education and awareness about botanical gardens. It is essential to become aware that nature is respected and taken care of. Botanical gardens should become the engine of diffusion and knowledge of plants.

To the environment in which they live and share with human beings. All must have an education base about it. It is an institution where we can find different types of plants classified by collections that are distinguished because they maintain a certain order and a specific control for their best organization and conservation. Its objective is to promote the interest of visitors to the plant world, some of these gardens are exclusively dedicated to certain plants and specific species.

Conservative Garden: Preservation of biological and genetic diversity, to the conservation of existing, or recent fruit species. Ethnobotanical garden: plants have a direct relationship with the existence of men and women. Ecological Garden: Study of plant species and the relationship between them and the environment in which they develop. Specific Botanical Garden – Local Flora: Study of the region’s own vegetation. Carpoteca: Collection of classified fruits, it is used as a material for botanical study.

Xiloteca: Collection of classified woods, used as material for the study of botany. Herbarium: Collection of dry plants, used as study material. Different activities are carried out: collection of living plants: it specializes in care, it must be irreproachable, plants must present an unbeatable aspect, and it has to correspond to the general issue developed by the Botanical Garden. Each plant must be recognized by the gardener in charge of the sector in which it is located, and each one must be labeled and its evolution must be followed.

Herbariums are enabled places to store dry plants. Currently, the most important herbarium in the world is in France, in the National Museum of Natural History, in Paris, which contains more than 8 million botanical specimens. Botanical specimen: it is a dry fragment of a plant and even sometimes the whole plant. The fragment is used as a representative of a clearly identified and described species in some publication. The types serve as a reference to identify the plants of the same species, depending on the resemblance they may have with the type that served to catalog the species.

It has a predominant function, a scientific function. Any botanical garden that is considered relevant, must have its herbarium and take care of its maintenance. The seedbed in a botanical garden is a fresh and dry site in which the seeds of the plant species that occur, or not, in the garden itself are deposited. Some botanical gardens schedule expeditions abroad to meet their research needs. Obviously, gardeners can collect the seeds of the plants found in the Botanical Garden.

But it is necessary to pay attention to the contamination produced by the un controlled hydration between the genera or the different species that are cultivated. In this case, genetic purity is in danger of not being respected, due to this it is very important to indicate it through an inscription in which the garden of origin in which the seeds were collected. True seed banks, seedbeds retain seed lots in huge cold cameras, or even freezers.

This reserve task is amplified extraordinarily among the different gardens of the world due to the exchange of seeds that are regularly verified. The crop of the seeds, a part of the stem is extracted by trying not to damage the mother plant. Each harvest must be identified: name of the genus and the species, accompanied by a note in which the place and date of its collection and the name of the collection is specified. Once in the seedbed, and for each of the species collected, the drying process that is usually made in paper bags begins. 


They are stored dry taking care of the classification of the seeds. These are already prepared for distribution. The garden reserves the seeds of certain species depending on their needs, the others will go towards the other destinations due to that exchange system established between the botanical gardens of the world. The greenhouses are closed, static and accessible sites in which the Mediterranean plants, which do not support very cold lands, pass the winter protected from frost.

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