Studying Organic Chemistry

0 / 5. 0

Studying organic chemistry

Within the world of organic chemistry we will find countless contexts that in order to understand them must be analyzed. To give rise to our research we have what a functional group is;A functional group is nothing more than an atom or set of them that are glued to a carbon chain. In our case we will be talking about the carbonyl functional group.

According to Peterson W.R. In the sixth edition of Organic Chemical Formulation and Nomenclature "the carbonyl functional group consists of a linked carbon atom with a covalent double bond to an oxygen atom".

Now, why talk about functional groups if our theme is propanona, all about acetone? Well, the truth is that we cannot start a topic without talking about its background, the thing is that the propanone or cetona belongs to the group of ketones (Carbonyl Grupo), suppose that now it was better understanding.

In this essay, what we will do is translate in a simpler and more dynamic way what is learned about what Propanona is, thanks to rigorous and successful investigations of it, so that the reader can raise his knowledge about this field of equalway we did it.


If you paid attention to our introduction, you should know that the carbonyl functional group is simply a carbon atom that are linked to another atom, but oxygen, by means of a double covalent bond. We can find this within the skeleton or structure of some of the compounds that are usually the most common. Although it is thought that this is organic, we can also appreciate it in inorganic compounds such as carbonic acid.

It should be noted that thanks to its great value this stands out, since it is possible for the interaction of many molecules with water.

"Proteins, sugars, amino acids, fats, nucleic acids and other biomolecules would not exist for not for him," said Gabriel Bolívar on July 10 of this year in his work about the Carbonyl Group;We know that like him, many scientists make the same statement since this something confirmed.

Now, within what is the carbonyl group (c = o) we have the aldehydes and ketones.

Aldehydos are organic compounds that are within the carbonyl group and its general formula is Rcho, R = Aliphatic or aromatic chain, C = Carbon, H = Hydrogen and O = Oxygen.

On the other hand, we have the ketones. As we said previously, ketones and aldehydes belong to the carbonilos group. Ketones are simple compounds, they can be volatile and soluble. This can be represented as follows, r- (c = O) -r, where r represents hydrocarbon chains, whether of alkanes, alkenes or alkines.

The ketones have different uses, and there are several ways to obtain ketones in the laboratory environment. These can be synthesized through compounds such as alkenes, esters and alkynes. But the most used method at an industrial level is through hydrocarbon oxidation.

Thanks to the fact that they belong to the carbonyl group, these have a nature of Acides, this is thanks to the stabilization ability that this functional group (carbonyl group) has allowing protons to be given from their double bond for the formation of the Enol, which isA conjugated base.

The difference between ketones and aldehydos is that aldehydos have a hydrogen atom in their carbonyl group and ketones do not have that hydrogen atom.

The ketones can be named in two ways, one is the substitute and the other is the traditional. In the substitute what we do is add the word "ONA" as for example Propanona.

A locator is the one that will indicate the location of the carbonyl group, in this one the number is put from the slightest end, that is, the closer to the carbonyl group, from there you must count. In the event that there are several carbonyl groups, then we add the prefix according to the carbonyl number. 

In the event that in the structure there are other functional groups then we will proceed to use the “Oxo” prefix. 

To use the traditional way, what we will do is name the rented groups in the order of the alphabet and using the word "Cetona" in the end. 

Within the group of ketones we have the propanone, so, already knowing all this we can talk about propanone without being lost.


This was discovered by Emil Erlenmeyer in 1880 due to the hydrolysis process of an alkene. 

The IUPAC approves that some ketones carry their common names, the IUPAC name for acetone is Propanona. The IUPAC name has no number for the propanone because in the propanone the carbonyl group only occurs in the second carbon atom.

Chemical properties

Propanone or acetone is not just what women use to take away the enamel of the nails, well, that is one of its uses, but this is a liquid organic compound, without any color and of non -unpleasant aroma.

We can find it in plants, trees, volcanic gases and forest fires, also in the smoke of tobacco, and garbage dumps, but where we find it most is in industrial processes. When it is present in the air, individuals manage to detect them in low concentrations thanks to their peculiar and distinctive smell, it also has a somewhat burning flavor.

Its commercial name is acetone and we can find it in the nature or environment, we can also find it in the body in low concentrations, as part of the result of fat degradation.


Its molecular formula is C3H6o and its semi -developed formula is CH3 (CO) CH3.

Physical properties

  • Liquid state
  • Of colorless appearance
  • Its molar mass is 58.08 g/mol
  • Fusion point 178.2 K (-95 ° C)
  • Boiling point 329.4 k (56 ° C)
  • Viscosity 0.32 CP at 20 ° C (293 K)
  • Refraction index 1.35900 (20 ° C)


Forms of extraction

Acetone can be extracted in different ways, but one of these is through a catalytic process of hydrolysis, through which we can also obtain phenol. We can also extract it by catalytic dehydrogenation of isopropyl alcohol and through polypropylene oxidation.

Types of reactions

Among the reactions of acetone, polymerization and condensation stand out.

Through polymerization, acetone reacts with other molecules (cyanhydric acid and ethanol) an undetermined number of times, reaching molecular weights of the order of millions, obtaining a plastic polymer called polymetacrylate.

But we also have oxidation, reduction and nucleophilic addition, which are three types of reactions in which propanone can do its intervention.

Functions and importance

Cetona is an organic compound that fulfills a diversity of functions both in the body and in the daily life of all people. The industries have implemented it to create various tools and solvent materials, as well as to make fabrics.

In this way, it has taken great relevance in the elaboration of almost all the objects that the human being uses such as the clothes that you saw, in laboratories and in medicine.

The main importance of this compound is found in the multiple uses that the industry has granted, and therefore more and more different products are created capable of facilitating the life of human beings.

However, this is not its main importance since ketone is present in everything, both in industries and in the human body, a main use is in industries and is applied to medicine as therapeutic properties which is little used forThis purpose but was recommended as anesthetic in replacement of chloroform that is used as antirreumatic.

The most important application of acetone is in the manufacture of methyl methacrylate (MMA), a market that experiences a growing demand for the increase in the uses of polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA), an alternative anti -extingment material to the glass in the construction industry,The demand for bisphenol-A and polycarbonate resins has become an important application of acetone, demanded by the automobile and microelectronics industry (manufacture of CD and DVD discs) DVD).

The propanone in terms of health

When the body uses fat instead of glucose as a source of energy, then that is where the propanone is formed in the blood;When propanone occurs in the blood, this means that the cells are doing insulin or that the one they already have cannot use it for energy purposes.

In the event that a person is in contact with large amounts of acetone, it walks throughout the body reaching all organs, but if we talk about a not -so -alarming amount then when entering the body and liver it is responsible for degrading it, withThe purpose of obtaining energy.

Inhalation of large quantities can cause irritations, headaches, dizziness, nausea, loss of knowledge, blood effects and even a possible coma.

According to the National Institute of Safety and Hygiene at work, in the document that collects the limits of professional exposure for chemical agents adopted for 2009, acetone has an admitted limit value of 500 parts per million or 1210 mg/m3.

Methods of obtaining 

Acetone enters the air, water and soil as a result of natural processes and human activity. This chemical occurs naturally in plants, trees, volcanic gases and forest fires. People and animals exhale acetone produced by the natural degradation of body fat. Acetone is also released during its production and use, through the smoke of tobacco and the gas tubes of cars, garbage landfills and the incineration of a certain kind of waste materials. On the ground, acetone levels increase mainly due to waste that contain this chemical and that are buried in garbage landfills. Acetone is present as gas in the air. Some amounts of acetone in the air are lost when they react with sunlight and other chemical substances. The rain and snow also eliminate small amounts of acetone from the atmosphere and during this process, deposit it on Earth and water. 

At any time, approximately half of the acetone present in typical atmospheric conditions will have disappeared in 22 days. The microbes (tiny ways of life) in the water eliminate some amounts of acetone from it. Certain amounts of acetone present in the water will evaporate in the air. Approximately half of the acetone in a stream of water will be removed from water in less than a day. The fish do not accumulate in their bodies the acetone in the water. The microbes present in the soil eliminate part of this chemical of the soils. Certain amounts disappear from the ground due to evaporation. Acetone molecules do not join the ground firmly. Rainwater and melted snow dissolve acetone and transport it more deeply from the ground to the surface.

Acetone is a product of great industrial interest in its high value as a solvent or precursor of plastics, fibers or medications, whose annual consumption reaches 7 billion tons. The variety of its uses causes acetone to consider one of the indicative of economic growth since acetone and its derivatives are present in numerous sectors, such as construction, automobile or lampic-technology industry. Industrially occurs mainly as a byproduct in obtaining the phenol from Cummeno, through the process discovered by Hock in 1944. This route represents more than 90 % of the current acetone production, being the catalytic dehydrogenation of isopropyl alcohol the second most widespread method.

In both cases, the starting product is a derivative obtained from oil, so these ways oppose the principles of sustainability.

Alternative processes are currently being studied that allow obtaining this product from renewable sources, being a variable of the fermentations of the sugars, the ABE fermentation (acetone, butanol, ethanol) the one that offers the best expectations as an industrial alternative. This obtaining process was discovered by Pasteur in 1861 and had a great development in the first years of the twentieth century due to the high demand for butanol. However, the irruption of oil in the market was raised as an economically more viable option and, from the 50s, this method was totally abandoned.

The impulse of renewable processes has favored their update, with numerous studies to optimize yeasts and conditions used during this fermentation so that its production is maximized,

Among the reactions of acetone, polymerization and condensation stand out.

Through polymerization, acetone reacts with other molecules (cyanhydric acid and ethanol) an undetermined number of times, reaching molecular weights of the order of millions, obtaining a plastic polymer called polymetacrylate.


The substance can form explosive peroxides in contact with strong oxidants such as acetic acid, nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. Reacts with chloroform and bromoform in conditions of basicity generating fire and explosion danger.

Acetone mixtures with chloroform can react violently in the presence of alkali. Due to its high flammability, fires have been caused during the recovery of the acetone of the air by absorption with activated carbon when the air flow was not quick enough to efficiently remove the heat generated by surface oxidation.


There are several functional groups and the group to which the Cetona and the aldehydos belong is to the group of carbonilos, and the propanone belongs to the group of ketones. Ketones are soluble simple compounds and have different uses.

Propanone or acetone is a substance that we can find in the environment or nature, as in trees, landfills and even in our body. Was discovered by Erlenmeyer in 1880 by accident.

This can have several reactions and one of them is polymerization. Its molecular formula is C3H6o and the one developed is CH3 (CO) CH3. This has a peculiar aroma that can be easily identified, in colorless and with a sweet flavor, but in the touch of the papillae it can be burning. Propanone can be extracted in several ways, but one of these is through a catalytic process of hydrolysis. The industries have implemented it to create various tools and solvent materials, as well as to make fabrics.

This can cause great irritations, dizziness, loss of knowledge and other things in case it is frequently inhaled. But in small quantities, the liver is responsible for decomposing it to produce energy.

Acetone is a product of great industrial interest in its high value as a solvent, and is considered of great importance for being one of the indicative of economic growth since acetone and its derivatives are present in numerous sectors, such as construction,Automobile or Lamicro-Technology Industry.


  • McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. 2nd. Edition, Volume I, 1992. properties-of-the-propanone.HTML
  • Peterson w.R. In the sixth edition of Organic Chemical Formulation and Nomenclature (Barcelona, 2010).
  • Advances in Science and Engineering-ISSN: 0718-8706 AV. one hundred. ING.: 5 (2), 31-49 (April/June, 2014). https: // = IWAR2OQRWTO7OTSKHEW8T7GFEN6V-NFSWAJWWEVFRBRM2EZ3VBFJ4R9XR26E

Free Studying Organic Chemistry Essay Sample

Related samples

Zika virus: Transmission form Introduction The Zika virus belongs to the Flaviviradae family, was found for the first time in a monkey called Rhesus febrile and in...

Zika virus: cases and prevention Introduction The World Health Organization (WHO) has confirmed that Zika is a virus caused through the mosquito bite which is...

Zeus The King of Greek mythology Introduction Zeus is the Olympic God of heaven and thunder, the king of all other gods and men and, consequently, the main figure...

Zeus's punishment to Prometheus Introduction Prometheus, punished by Zeus Prometheus, punished by Zeus. Prometheus is a ‘cousin’ of Zeus. He is the son of the...


Leave feedback

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *