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Study habits and social habits
The main purpose of the research was oriented to verify the relationship between the habits of studies and social skills with academic performance in fourth and fifth grade students of an educational institution in Chorrillos. A direct and significant correlation was found between the three constructs, so the general hypothesis that led the present investigation was proven, where the study habits had a greater explanatory nature in academic performance;That is, the latter is a factor that has a direct relationship with academic performance, according to the results above.
It should be noted that the assessment of the percentage of explanation of the theoretical model of Salinas raised in the present research on academic performance, allowed to determine that two independent variables (study habits and social skills) moderately explain academic performance. This allows us to affirm that academic performance is multicausal, since it is not only affected by student individual variables, but also by social variables. The results mentioned above could be explained since academic performance was measured quantitatively;However, this variable can also have a qualitative assessment. This is proposed by Navarro when it defines academic performance as a construct that can adopt quantitative and qualitative values, which could establish an approach with the dimension of the profile of skills, knowledge, attitudes and values developed by the student in the teaching -learning process, isSay, internal and external factors. These results, therefore, could be different if a qualitative measurement scale for academic performance is used, since as the academic note is known, although it is a quantitative assessment, it is also subjective because the teacher can have different criteria at the time at the timeto grant. As described in the theoretical framework, the MINEDU since 2010 raised an evaluation method by competencies which allows the teacher to grant a note to the student in an objective way, since it uses evaluation criteria and different instruments that evaluation at different times of the process of the process of the process ofteaching-learning. However, in the present investigation the use of the evaluation by competencies was not found, so it can be inferred that the teachers in 2015 use or not the necessary criteria and instruments to grant an objective qualification.
The results found in this research could be different if in a future research is proposed to monitor the evaluation carried out for the teacher when granting an academic note, so it can be said that the results may be different from those foundIn the present investigation.
It is important to highlight that there is little research on the rest of the internal factors (aptitudes-intelligence, physical health, motivation, etc.) and external (socioeconomic level, teacher, curriculum, etc.) academic performance. However, research on different factors have been found that could predict academic performance.
For example, the research carried out by Ataabadi, Yusefi and Moradi that is entitled: "The prediction of academic performance among deaf students: emotional intelligence, social skills, family communication and self – esteem";It determines that there is a significant and positive relationship between emotional intelligence (internal factor) and academic performance. It is worth mentioning that social skills are part of emotional intelligence;This last variable is a construct that depends on other variables that are also some factors (internal or external) of academic performance;Therefore, a relationship between emotional intelligence and academic performance was evidenced.
Therefore, it is considered convenient. This would lead to intervention programs for the improvement of academic performance in students.
On the other hand, the intention of the investigation also went to determine the relationship of the habits of study and academic performance. It was appreciated that the correlation observed was direct, with low and significant intensity. This implies that study habits influence academic performance. As obtained in the effect size;Academic performance can be explained in 5.8% by study habits in the sample. Then, the hypothesis that was raised in the investigation is accepted. This result is supported by the investigation of Ríos and Ramos in 2013. In his research he found that study habits influence academic performance by 66.4%, while 33.6% are influenced by other factors outside the fundamental components of study habits in university students. In this latest research they conducted an evaluation record analysis in order to obtain the data for academic performance. Although the same conclusions were obtained the percentages described above differ.
On the other hand, this research also sought to determine the relationship of social skills and academic performance;In this sense, a direct correlation was found, with null intensity, not significant;This means that social skills do not influence academic performance. Likewise, by obtaining the effect of the effect, it states that social skills do not explain the variability that could exist in academic performance. So that the hypothesis raised in the investigation is rejected. The previously reported results coincide with the conclusions proposed by Ataabadi et al. , who found that not only social skills were not able to predict academic performance, but also their subscales do not have this power to do so. It should be noted that these authors used Riggio’s social skills questionnaire. This has 90 items which are divided into six scales, which are the following: emotional expressiveness, emotional sensitivity, emotional control, social expressiveness, social sensitivity and social control. These subscales are different from the scales proposed by Gismero, however, the results found in the statistical analysis are similar.
On the contrary, in the investigation of Nuñez, et al. They found that the skills are directly related to the level of academic performance that students possess, since students since they are born are part of a society, that is, they are sociable beings. These authors came to this conclusion because they interviewed both teachers and students through a questionnaire about how the teacher and student are related within the classroom and therefore in the teaching-learning process. They found that students who have low academic performance are those who are afraid to ask the teacher and classmate, therefore, an assertive lack of assertive communication between students and the teacher is evidenced.
Also, in skills improvement programs such as the Achieve project, one of its results is the increase in academic performance, since they claim that good social relationships between classmates and the teacher, encourage the student to improve their learning achievement. It should be noted that these results were reported in the United States at the national level, since this project has been implemented since 1990 in all schools in different states and cities. It is for this reason that the results found in the present investigation are different from those exposed in this project, because they are considered variables as educational policies, idiosyncrasy, culture, among others in a different way.
Likewise, the purpose of the investigation was oriented to be able to determine the relationship of study habits, social skills with the academic performance of the sample, according to the gender criteria;The results expressed a positive and significant correlation for both the female and the masculine gender;This implies that the habits of social studies and skills together, both for the female and male gender could be important academic performance predictors. Likewise, it should be noted that in research focused on social skills and academic performance;Oyarzún, Estrada, Pino and Oyarzún reveal that the genres exhibit different profiles of association among the variables that would indicate that positive interpersonal skills are associated with academic performance particularly in the case of women. These results have some similarity with the results found in this research, since the female gender can explain the variability of performance according to study habits and social skills by greater percentage. Therefore, it can be said that these results are part of the impact that gender roles can influence the teaching -learning process and therefore in academic adaptation.
These results are the source of future investigations, since there have been no reports related to the study variables with gender. So that researchers are invited even more about these variables.
Another aspect, within the specific objectives it was proposed to determine the relationship of study habits and social skills with academic performance in students of 14, 15, 16 and 17 years of the sample;A significant correlation was found at the ages of 15,16 and 17 years. This means that the habits of social studies and skills together, both for the ages of 15, 16 and 17 years could influence academic performance. Then the hypothesis raised in the investigation was rejected.
As stated above, it is inferred that academic performance is affected by the grouping of the two independent variables (study habits) increasingly according to the age increase and that the greatest effect (although theoretically minimal) was appreciated in theAge of 17 years. These results could be explained by the fact that the oldest student has more experience in insertion in equal groups;where he participates in games and develops the independence of him in front of adults, so which he is invited to deepen this subject.
Also, in the investigation the dimensions of the study habits with academic performance were analyzed. The results indicate that there is a statistically significant relationship between the dimensions of study habits with academic performance. However, the dimensions that provide greater practical importance with academic performance are: environmental conditions and study planning. These results could be influenced by the abilities and skills of the student evaluated. Anleu, in his research entitled "Study habits of sixth primary students from a private institution in their teaching -learning process," found that subject students have the necessary knowledge of environmental conditions and study planning to apply them in the processLearning;In other words, the student has the ability to select an adequate environment and plan their learning process. Therefore, it is inferred that the dimensions of material use and assimilation of content could be related to academic performance if the student is taught the importance of these factors and how it helps in the learning process.
Also, in the investigation the dimensions of social skills with academic performance were analyzed. The results showed that only the dimensions of anger or disagreement expression and say no and cut interactions have a positive and statistically significant relationship with academic performance. However, depending on the size of the effect, no dimension of social skills has practical importance to be taken into consideration, since they were smaller than the required explanation. These data found provide a detailed analysis of the relationship between social skills and academic performance;Therefore, it is verified that there is no statistically significant relationship between the variables analyzed. These results are backed by Ataabadi et al. that in their research they found that there is no significant relationship between social skills and academic achievement.
In relation to the sample, it is rescued that it is significant, since, in what is found in previously conducted research, there are few who worked a similar number of participants, being the common denominator to develop an investigation with a sample that does not reach a hundred adolescents.
The results of the present investigation establishes an important precedent in terms of the subject and the research that has been carried out around this, since it shows that the pre -established ideas that are available on the social skills and study habits (internal factors) of the studentinfluence academic performance. These factors are a constant and decisive to predict learning achievement.
In consideration, this is a broad terrain to explore because as it is known in the areas of education and psychology, it has been investigated on academic performance, but as it is a concept caused by different variables, there are many times factors that were initially not considered andthat exert influence on academic performance. This research investigated the habits of study and social skills together, which is why the research work is highlighted, especially in this subject, although it is a research topic that is on the rise, there is not much the information foundcompared to other topics. For this reason, it is suggested that the issue be studied in greater depth.