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Río Nilo in the development of Egyptian civilization
Egyptian civilization is one of the oldest cultures of which there has been a record, existing for more than 6,000 years. This civilization was developed in the northeast of Africa and achieved development in multiple cultural aspects, which are part of the World Heritage. This report will study the worldview, political and social organization, economy, geographical location and artistic manifestations; elements that make up this culture. This with the objective of informing about this mother culture and with the purpose of deepening the study of cultures, their characteristics and elements.
Egypt is located northeast of the African continent. Formerly limited by the north with the Mediterranean Sea; to the south with the Nubia region; by the west with the Libya desert and with the Red Sea and the isthmus of Suez to the east. The habitable territory was divided into two regions: the high and low Egypt. Alto Egypt was in the north and understood from Cairo to the Mediterranean Sea. Bajo Egypt was located south and covered from Asuán to Egypt. The peoples were located on the banks of the Nile River and this was used for the development of civilization.
The Nile helped the economy of civilization since it was used in many ways. The river banks will produce fertile land that was used for the agriculture and livestock of the town. The Nile also favored trade, since this was used as a commercial route. Agriculture consisted of wheat, barley, linen, grapes, vegetables and legumes. The Egyptians monitored river flood stations to sow different crops and thus have resources throughout the year. Livestock was developed in land extensions belonging to the temples and grass herds from sheep, cattle and mules. The an exchange system was developed by land and sea roads. By land the commercial routes reached Syria, Palestine and Mesopotamia while the ships sailed through Syria and the Islands of the Aegean Sea.
The Egyptian worldview is one of the oldest recorded. This sought to give an explanation to all natural phenomena. In the Egyptian worldview, the world was divided into three planes that were related. The first was Aauru, which was the world of the gods and heaven. The second was the underworld, called Duat. The third was the earth, the world of the living and there all creatures, nature and man lived there. Religion was polytheistic and anthropomorphist. Religious cults dedicated to local and national gods were performed. In each region, different gods were worshiped, but the main deities were the god Ra, God of the Sun; Osiris, God of the dead; Eisis, God of fertility.
The political organization was monarchical and absolutist. The government was in charge of the pharaoh, who had absolute control of the government and owned all lands. He was considered the son of God Ra, who had given him authority to govern all men. The Pharaoh had different officials such as: The Real Escriba, who carried calculation of agricultural income and inspected industries and shops; the great vizier, in charge of controlling the provinces and functioned as an intermediary between the authorities and the pharaoh; the head of the State Seal, monitored the income and expenses of the State; And the great priest, who was in charge of religious cult.
The social organization was divided into various social classes, which caused inequality. This consisted of a class pyramid. On the tip are the priests, who were in charge of the cult, took care of the temples and the sacred animals. Under the priests are the scribes, who administered the State, monitored the constructions, recruited soldiers, administered agricultural products and charged taxes. Below are the warriors, who conquered new territories and defended the country. Then follow the members of the town, artisans, farmers and merchants. The people were obliged to pay tax, make forced labor and serve as recruits in war time. Finally are the slaves, who were prisoners of war forced to do hard work and served the privileged classes.
Egyptian civilization is characterized by its artistic manifestations such as architecture, sculpture and writing; elements that have managed to be recognized in front of everyone. Egyptian architecture had religious ends, as they were inspired by the existence of beyond. Some examples are the Guiza Pyramids, which were built to place the tombs of the pharaohs and their families. The most representative works of Egyptian sculpture are colossi and sphinx. The colossi are gigantic statues that represent pharaohs. These statues are located near the old city of Thebes. The Sphinx is a gigantic statue with a pharaoh face and Leon’s body. This is located near the Pyramids of Guiza. The Egyptians developed different writing systems during different periods in their history. The writing of hieroglyphs are symbols that represent objects and serve to designate sounds. This type of writing was reserved to decorate temples and temples. Only the scribes and the pharaoh knew this type of writing. Hieratic writing consists in a simpler way for writing to adapt to papyrus. Demotic writing was an abbreviated form of hieratic writing that was used for everyday affairs.
In conclusion, this culture is a model that reflects what the first societies of man’s history were like. Thanks to its cultural wealth, this civilization helps us to study in a general way the definition of culture. This civilization has also contributed elements that have benefited the development of the. This culture managed to mark the history of man and is undoubtedly a town that is recognized worldwide thanks to its entire history. His unique way of seeing the world, its distinguishable art, and multiple of its characteristics are currently manifested.