Literary Criticism In Scientific Terms

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Literary criticism in scientific terms


Literary criticism, in philological humanistic terms is a discipline of the science of literature that refers to the use of principles or theoreticals to analyze and explain social structures and reasoned valuation of literary works;The dominant Aristotelian treated – understood from rhetoric or poetics, are typical of the informative or journalistic analysis, which a party takes into discussion in a written media on a certain literary work. In that sense, criticism must mean a complex development due to the dispersion of aesthetics, the domain of linguistics and progressive evolutions to fashions and currents.


The history of failure or abuse of modernity in literary studies no less omnipresent provided the influence of literature and literary criticism since 1930, a gradual professionalization of teaching and literary studies, of a more detailed organization and dissemination in the form ofknowledge and expression, but have not acquired the result of that monolithic character of academic architecture or art history.

The great dissemination and institutional diversity of literature, including publications, journalism, electronic media, etc., as well as the educational and research institutions of literary studies at school, they involve a corresponding diversity of discursive means and practices. 

One of the symptoms of this situation would be the enormous difficulty involved in the subject in terms of conflict between schools or clearly defined antagonistic groups- the leading academies that import aesthetic or critical norms on the one hand, the experimentalists, avant-garde or revolutionaries on the other- . Always, literature has lost and loses thousands of readers. Literary works die for the mass public and even codify or even fossilize in the interpretive canons of the academic world.

Research space and theoretical problematization

At the same time, what is most important the relationship between literary studies and the market, is less firm and takes more varied ways than in other cultural disciplines;They are the norms of criticism that have never exerted the same influence on literary or editorial reputation that modern theories have on any other discipline. The only novelty is that contemporary or rather postmodernly, literature has begun to lose interpreters.

This does not deny the relations between academia and market, but institutions exert a lower direct influence on contemporary literature and is due to the insufficiency of economic means to impose restrictions on the authors who do not like and the existence of communication routes between departmentsUniversity University and Editorials.

 In the field of art history, for example, where the ties between the academic world and the world of exhibitions and galleries are much narrower -there is a discipline of greater extension and variety than any other, and if the architectural theory and the theory and theHistory of art could be compared to large businesses that launched a series of variations of the same product into the world of the market, literary studies would resemble a multinational conglomerate that sells and distributes a large number of diverse products in different sites and by different media. 

For this reason, the contours of the postmodern paradigm are less clear in literary studies than in any other discipline. Although modern literary studies depend on the notion of the inexorable opposition to repressions rooted in the past and how this notion shocks the novel product represented in art and architecture, as well as the heroic transformation of human destiny.

Modern writers like Pound, Eliot and Woolf opposed and horrified the culture of the automated masses of the twentieth century, these writers also settled to the general political and cultural current;Hence the peculiar contradiction, which was never as marked as in modern literature between the radical interruption of form and traditionalism in content and ideology. 

The similar complexity of modern literature entails the complicity between formation and reproduction of the English language (the dominant form in literary studies) and the notion of modernity itself. However, the theory about the reading of A. Richards in Fundamentals of Literary Criticism,- with its concern for the harmonization of conflicting impulses in the reader.

 It worked very well in the analysis of works by new writers and in which it has been observed that the new criticism, which has had so much influence in the United States and the United Kingdom since the middle of the century with its brutal emphasis on the game of irony, tensionAnd resolution within a text considered an autonomous artifact, provided the ideal reading mode for a set of modern texts that seemed more and more to deny the pleasures of an immediate understanding, even demanding a great lucidity attention to the verbal or poetic substanceAbout and for its meaning.

But the notion of intertextuality, of dialogisms within the texts will be installed forcefully from Bajin. The notion of intersubjectivity between the reader and the text is now replaced by the intertextuality that will open to the text to the irruption of multiple voices, the text is not flat, it is deep and bulky.

Also academic literary criticism, especially that of Great Britain, rejected modern literature and its theory, promoted by F.R Leavis and the Scrutiny group, which were the least interested in becoming public relations of a modern literature that, by assimilating, when possible, modern forms and energies to the English traditions of literature, such as when Charles Newman considers that legitimationand academic containment of the dangerous energies of modernity are a.

However, the idea of the postmodern has firmly rooted in literary studies the possibility of considering modernity as a more closed and rigid entity, this means that one wants to deconstruct the issue to have some homogeneity to enable said deconstruction- it is createdThe analysis of the birth of postmodern literature, which paradoxically runs the risk of reducing literature to its most basic material conditions and turning it into what is not.

 The literary resides not so much in its material nature as in its form;but the particular way in which this style and convention developed in the work of art. The literary, he declares, lies in the intense capacity of the literary work to attract attention to the qualities of his form. Modern or progressive writing refuses to allow the reader to illusion of a real world and in which various contemporary theoretical analyzes disseminated and developed this formalistic position. Then, the literary creation work in modernity can no longer occur in the humble subjugation of the desire to

Represent the world or adapt to a set of aesthetic precepts;The commitment to carry out an art that does not know another rule except their own and that tends to transform the vulgar contingency of linguistic relationships in pure aesthetic terms, and that require such an extreme of knowledge and mastery by the artist, that toThis makes him a divine architect rather than a humble worker.


The variability of the readings constitutes an architecture of signs located at different levels of depth. For Barthes, both semiology and linguistics have in the future the mission of studying this phenomenon of connotation as a mission and ethics. In the same vein, Barthes was censored and excluded at this stage, by two scientific officials on the side of French literary theory Raymond Picard and its traditional school.

That paradoxically facing the author makes the literary "new criticism" as a starting point, are based on a desire to discover the essence or limit of each artistic practice, material or aesthetic identity that can transfer that idea to the literature presented with certainInitial difficulties -and know in the world, also got Barthes himself to find a leading place, not only in his country but also abroad.

Thus, for example, the father of structural anthropology, Levi Strauss who had recommended Barthes reading the analysis developments of the Vladimir Propp story, and his contemporaries Greimas, Bremond and Todorov, so that he focuses on linking the object to the objectLiterary: The story, integrate us at a higher level of literary analysis, aspects and modes of the story. 

The truth is that, in effect the semiology of communication and that of significance in that period make it possible for Barthes to undertake a different stage: that of the text. The metadiscourses that surrounded him made new ideas to an already mature and free conception to operate with the texts.

This notion of hierarchy was based on the unity of content capable of correlating very strongly with history: the network of the story and the notion in which the Scriptures cross other scriptures- as in a journey the texts- according to Barthes- are built as ifThey were mosaics of appointments of legitimacy to the argumentation, the texts are absorptions of other texts that are transformed. A perspective of the appointments, a mirage of structures in which the text is simply written with a specialized, respectable voice and holds the idea that the opinion of some recognized person is cited, prestigious in a certain area.

The editing circuit of literary works

The edition of an art -object book as a product is considered as the art of preparing this work for its preparation, dissemination, and publication, within the factors that favor or hinder such diffusion. Once the editor has made the decision to disseminate a certain text, various possibilities or types of editing from versions or alternative manuscripts are presented before him;The processes include several stages by the author until his impression: 

Reception of the manuscript, acceptance of the original and contracting editorial evaluation and copyright, edition of the original, correction of the style, graphic design, composition graphic form and final of the composition of images, orthotyographic correction, final art, pre press, printing, bindingand finishes;It is also called the English Edition: "Correction" to the act by which a work is modified.

The book, as an object of art or collection, can have a value for the beauty of its presentation, its illustration or its binding. All this only concerns the outer aspect of the book;But first of all it is text, and your supports, writing technique and procedures to manufacture it should be considered. This is your reason for being.

The book, for a long time was the main means to spread and conserve ideas and knowledge, actively participating in the history of civilization and culture. Although currently, digital libraries, e-books, computers and mobile devices have faced the edition / publication of more modern versions such as websites, blogs, etc.


A disclosed work if it is again printed or disseminated, is called reprint;On the contrary, if you suffer from any substantial modification, such as extensions, reviews, corrections, suppressions or added changes or any other modification, it is called a new edition or reissue, adding the timely number of the corresponding edition. 

If the differences are minimal and non -substantial, they are called state differences. Scripture and man evolved over the years along with the needs of society, changed habits, books that take over their context and that have varied the beliefs of men responding to them or revealing themselves  

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