Keratinocyte cell: Dermatological diseases
Keratinocyte: They are cells that are recognized or identified by being squamous, which are protein producers such as keratin that is essential for the outer layer of the epidermis, and cytokines that help the interaction of cells in an immune system. “It is the cell that is most present in the epidermis and represents 80 %of the epidermal cell’, – (Manuel Dominguez, 2002) These cells are created in the epidermal base (basal layer) and is ascending to the most superficial layer. In this process the cell is losing its nucleus and when they flatten they are called corneocytes.
Its main function is keratinization, a process of cell differentiation in which keratinocyte undergoes metabolic and morphological changes in order to produce and accumulate keratin since, they are full of a hard and fibrous sulfurized protein (keratin). A keratinocyte has two destinations during its life cycle, one is to be a divisive cell due to mythosis, which forms a new keratinocyte, this occurs in the basal layer by means of the most internal extract, some of these cells remain and continue with theQueratinocito population. These cells are known as stem cells.
The other destination is to migrate through the different layers of the skin, which are pushing up as cells are formed under them. The keratinocyte are formed by different layers of the epidermis which are formed depending on the states of differentiation of the cell:
- Basal or germinative layer. It is a layer of thick and deeper of the epidermis, which is constituted by active cylindrical cells responsible for the reproduction and replacement of epidermal cells.
- Spiny stratum layer. It is formed approximately 5 to 10 layers of cells (Manuel Dominguez J. a.), which have polygonal forms that are an intercellular bridge that allow union with other layers.
- Granular stratum layer. Layer characterized by presenting keratinocyte in the form of keratohialin granules, which are responsible for the formation of keratin and the characteristic of its color.
- Lucid layer. This layer is only found in some parts of the body such as palms of the hands or soles of the feet (thick skin).
- Cornea layer (outer layer). This layer is made up of already dead cells. The keratinocyte are flattened without nucleus or organelles, only cytoskeleton and keratin. The thickness of this layer will depend only and exclusively on the type of skin.
It is the surface layer of the skin;the skin being the biggest organ of the body. This organ consists of 3 layers:
Its function is to protect the organism from the external environment as internal, creating a protective barrier.
Keratin is its main component with 80% of epidermal cells (Cuban, s.F.). The keratinocyte are keratin producing cell that provides strength to the skin, hair and nails.
It is mentioned above, through the epidermis the keratinocyte meets the main function of forming a protective barrier against:
- Environmental damage
- Water loss
- Wound repair
Once the infectious (pathogens) agents begin to invade the upper layers of the epidermis, the keratinocyte can react producing proinflammatory mediators, which act as nonspecific response or inflammation, particularly chemiocins such as CXCl10 and CCL2 as you attract leukocytes to the moments of moments ofPathogen invasion. They stimulate inflammation and activate Langerhans cells in response to an injury to warn of the immune system.
Epidermis product diseases are called dermatological diseases, which are very extensive pathologies that cover as many primary skin diseases as other systemic diseases that manifest through the skin (Barcelona, S.F.). The specialty in charge to deliver some treatment is dermatology, in charge of the care and treatment of the skin. Some of the diseases are:
- Atopic dermatitis
Skin diseases are classified as the fourth most common cause of human disease. A new study, carried out by the Technical University of Munich (Germany), estimates the prevalence of these pathologies outside the typical medical environment and has revealed that they are more common than what is thought.
One of the most frequent diseases is psoriasis;which is an accelerated life cycle of cutaneous cells. It is a chronic inflammatory disease to the skin, causes the cells to accumulate causing sca. This disease is not classified in a single guy rather in several:
- Plate psoriasis: produces dry, high and red lesions in the skin (plates) covered with silver scales.
- Psoriasis in drops: mainly affects young children and adults. In general, it is triggered by a bacterial infection, such as streptococcal tonsillitis.
- Inverse psoriasis: mainly affects the skin of the armpits, groin, under the breasts and around the genitals.
- Plate psoriasis: You can affect the nails of the hands and feet, causing chopped, abnormal growth and color changes.
- Psoriasis arthritis: inflamed and schemous skin, psoriatic arthritis causes inflammation and joint pain that are typical of arthritis.
- Pustulous psoriasis: less frequent and can occur in the form of extensive spots (generalized pustulous psoriasis) or in smaller areas in the hands, feet or on the tips of the fingers.
- Erythrodermic psoriasis: less frequent, you can cover the entire body with a red eruption and with skin detachment, which can cause itching or intense ardor.
The symptoms or signs of psoriasis are:
- Red spots on the skin covered with thick and silver scales
- Spreaded points (commonly seen in children)
- Dry and cracked skin.
- Itching, burning or pain.
- Chopped or grooved nails.
- Rigid and inflamed joints.
Psoriasis has 3 causes that alter the functioning of epidermal cells, especially keratinocyte and fibroblasts.
- Genetic causes: studies reflect that there is a genetic predisposition, however there is no specific gene, rather genetic characteristics that are reflected in people more likely to develop this disease.
- Immunological causes: the factors cause inflammation in the epidermis characterized by cells that are renewed quickly and skin inflammation reaction.
- Environmental factors: both internal and external environmental factors are an environmental factors, which affects people with a genetic predisposed that are given by environmental outbreaks.
In conclusion, there are a series of treatments, depending on the age and status of the disease which you can opt for these people suffering from this disease.
- Topical treatment: It is a treatment applied directly to the skin or scalp, consists of creams, gels, ointments, lotions or foams where their main asset is corticosteroids and vitamin D, which will allow to reduce inflammation and cell replacement, educate theActivity of the immune system, fad the skin and uncover the pores and soften the skin.
- Phototherapy: exposure to UVB ultraviolet radiation is used, naturally artificial. There is also a treatment called Puva, which combines the use of ultraviolet light with a medication that sensitizes the skin in light.
- Systemic treatment. When psoriasis is very advanced and severe.
- Combined therapy. It is the combination of the three previous treatments.
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