José Rizal From A Political-Religious Point Of View

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José Rizal from a political-religious point of view


From a political-religious point of view, the Philippines experienced the propagandist movement, whose maximum activity took place between 1880 and 1895. This was an established movement for didactic, literary and always peaceful purposes, in which his followers wanted to awaken the national intellect of the Filipino archipelago. As leader of the Movement, José Rizal supported liberal ideals in which he demanded that the Philippines be one more province of the Spanish colony. In this way, there would be better access to education rights and the construction of schools would be encouraged. 

Likewise, the ascending percentage of illiteracy by the native population due to the pressure of religious authorities against any provision prone to literacy could be pointed out. I must remember that during the nineteenth century, the Church belonged to the conservative side and had a great weight in everyday life. To such an extent, that prevented the teaching of the Philippine population for fear of the introduction of harmful ideas that promoted possible rebellions. 

In addition, the indigenous population continued to be essentially rural due to bad development in transport and communication. This limited economic expectations and made the economy basically nourish clergy, military and officials. Therefore, the shortage of education together with the abuse of power by the clerical impositions were accentuated.


From my point of view, those difficulties together with the lack of union by the Philippine people was one of the most complicated obstacles that the author faced. Therefore, through his novel José Rizal lists a list of latent problems in society so that citizens understand it and there may be a change. José Rizal born on June 19, 1861 in Calambas, the Philippines, the remarkable propagandist José Protacio Rizal Mercado and Alonso Realonda was one of the best writers in the Castilian language of Filipino origin.

After receiving an education outside the clerical limitations of his country, Rizal had the opportunity to experience in the first person a much more liberal and conservative intellectual atmosphere than that was happening in his country of origin far from being a revolutionary as such, this writerHe witnessed injustices against his own family for supporting administrative reforms in the archipelago. This made him see that the main opponent of the reforms was not Spain, but the religious authorities and the corruption of high positions.

He says in his speech on June 25, 1884;Spain as a mother also teaches her language to the Philippines, despite the opposition of her myopes and pigmeos that, ensuring the present, do not reach to see the future. As can be seen, the novelist is aware of the future of the archipelago if he does not fight for deep changes in the country. In addition, for Rizal Spanish inherited from Spain is a compression weapon in favor of the Philippines, which can open many doors to the tagos when facilitating the development in the society of the time. For these reasons, the writer will try to avoid the rupture of the metropolis with the Spain to which he respects.

Therefore, to defend these ideals that firmly supported and that few people dared to denounce, Rizal spoke in 1887 by publishing Noli Me Tangere, a novel that acted like the spark that detonated a whole series of covert injustices. Likewise, the themes that are reflected, the scenes and even the characters that seem in this book, to highlight that of Crisóstomo Ibarra, (in many ways the alter ego of the same José Rizal) made a lot of noise in the conservative society of the time of the time.


Social through Noli me tangere, so that the abuses and injustices of the past are in the present, José Rizal shows in his summit novel, Noli Me tagere (with the subtitle the country of the friars), a criticism of the Philippine societyof the nineteenth century. After several centuries of Spanish domain, I consider that this book is a strategy to promote the propagandist movement and thus arouse the national conscience of the archipelago to create an equal society in the archipelago.

Argument of the novel

This novel begins by narrating the present of Crisóstomo Ibarra, a young tagalo who returns excited to the Philippines after finishing his studies in Spain. When Chrysostom appears in San Diego, his hometown, he begins to receive bad news. He discovers that his father has died imprisoned after being unfairly harassed. At the same time, his body was unearthed from the cemetery and thrown into the water at the hands of Father Dámaso, who until then was a died priest in the town.

Ibarra is aware that his father did not commit any illegality and that the reason for his murder was to want to promote educational reforms in the town of San Diego. The tagalo is not vindictive and decides to take the reins of the situation being he who carry out his father’s projects and build a school in the town. In addition, our protagonist has the help of the people’s teacher, who confesses all the problems he has had with the priests because there is no place to teach independence and without religious interventions. Also, before the new Chrysostome initiative for building a school and that education is accessible to the entire town, the friars will repeatedly try to intervene and hinder the project looking for ways to accuse him of heretic.

In the first chapters of this novel, the reader is presented to the protagonist as a formed boy, with studies and family well positioned and reformist ideals, which in my opinion shares a great similarity with the life of the writer of the novel, JoséRizal. Both the character of Crisóstomo Ibarra and the novelist himself know the abuses and difficulties by which the archipelago is passing and both want to fight in a peaceful way for the rights they deserve and that are being taken away by the local church and power. In this way, I believe that Rizal himself uses this character to free himself and show not only his experiences, but that of many other Filipinos in fear of being heard.

Throughout this work puts in the lips of Ibarra its propagandist ideals being this the figure that transmits the criticism of the Filipino Society of the late nineteenth century the large part of the time. Similarly, the writer shows readers how the young man witnesses revenge against his own family by friars who will not stop looking for opportunities for Chrysostom to carry out his father’s projects.

On several occasions, Ibarra is accused of a filibuster and even suffers an attempt at murder in which another innocent person dies in her place. In my view, seeing how the protagonist of the story is such a young boy and so many tragedies and injustices occur, it is a strategy that Rizal uses so that the reader sympathizes with the protagonist and wishes that he really gets his purposes.

On the contrary, the writer produces feelings of dislike in readers towards the friars showing them as cold characters, without respect for life, cruel and presumptuous. In addition, the novelist also highlights the indifference of the Civil Guard for protecting citizens, since in many cases they do not want to have problems with the friars, as we can see in the following appointment:

I plan to live calmly the time I remain in this country and I do not want issues with men who use a skirt. Referring to the clothing of them.

Name with which the crown called colonial independence. Eventually, in the Liv Ibarra chapter he is accused by two religious of an attack in a convent and is carried in prison despite the fact that the Civil Guard is aware of his innocence. Thanks to Elijah, a good friend of the protagonist, manages to escape soon. However, they are persecuted until Ibarra is taken for death when confused with Elijah, who is who really dies.


Finally, the novel ends with an open ending in which his fiancee María Clara, thinking that Chrysostom has really died, decides to leave everything behind to succumb to the wishes of the church and enter a convent. Despite not being a very explanatory outcome, it shows to what extent the religious power is able to manipulate the characters of the novel.

On the other hand, although the story of Crisóstomo Ibarra is the main one in the criticism of this book, the writer also includes other complementary stories to the narrative that in my view, they manage to reinforce the message that you want to convey. These are short stories and alternate with the plot thread of the main story, make the reader deepen much more in the work and tyranny of those who abuse power. As can be seen, compassion does not exist and the privilege of liberty is paid with death.

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