Islamic Art Of The 10th Century

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Islamic art of the 10th century


We are facing a work framed at the time of the Fatimí Caliphate present in North Africa between the 909 and 1171, after the Agrabí (Sunni belief), a caliphate to which it replaces. His faithful follow Fatima, Ali and his descendants (from whom the Chií Branch of Islam emerges). With capital the current city of Cairo. In the 10th century he lived with the other two great caliphates which are the abasi and the Cordobés.

Description of the work, extracted from the museum with no frontiers: the ceramic bowl is painted with monochromatic shine and shows a giraffe with her boyfriend next to a tree on a background full of contour panels decorated with the so -called eye design of eye ofPeacock. Giraffes were considered exotic and prestigious animals and paraded in festival celebrations.


The pillows were during the years 1146 and 1269. It was a rigorist religious movement headed by Ibn Tumar, Berber del Sur de Morocco. The pillows dominated in North Africa (with capital in Marrakech) and cross the Strait before the call of the Andalusian Muslims. His advance was unstoppable until Christians won the decisive battle of 1212, in Las Navas de Tolosa. From this moment on, the decline for Islamic domain in the Iberian Peninsula will come. The mocarabas brought to art. We can find these decorative elements in the Alhambra de Granada.

Description of the work, information extracted from the official website of the City of Jerez de la Frontera in the section dedicated to the Municipal Archaeological Museum: “It was located in the upper arch of the Puerta del Real, one of the four roads of entrance to the Medinaof Jerez in Islamic era. The text is religious, in the line of the pillows. Whose translation extolizes the figure of Allah and the prophet Muhammad ”.

The Spanish Arabistas were creators of an elitist and isolated group, repressed by censorship or forced to work under conditions of serious hardships during the 19th century. Casiri, a Syrian Maroní priest, founder of the Arabist tradition translated the Arab registrations of the Alhambra and by order of King Ferdinand VI made a catalog of Arab manuscripts that belonged to the library of El Escorial in which he decided to include in said catalog of passages ofThe texts of El Escorial in the original Arab and its Latin translation, the result of this work was an essential source of information related to Al Ándalus in Europe.

In the end, Casiri was a mentor of a large number of young Arabists who will do with positions in universities. Within Spanish Arabism, firm ideological positions were adopted quite early and there was no work that would be an admirable logro until José Antonio Conde published the history of the domination of the Arabs in Spain around 1820 – 1821. This author, French, was forced to realize an exile after the War of Independence.

López García exposes that his work takes sides with the Arab from a repudiation of the Spanish. Count was a pioneer in recognizing the literature of the Moriscos. Gayangos was the first professor of Arab at the Central University of Madrid and was a mentor of an entire generation of Arabist.

Towards the second half of the nineteenth century, Arabism penetrated into circles of intellectuals who tried to refute the assessment of the period under Muslim domain people of conservative ideology, in which personalities such as the Baron de la Joyosa who will resort to derogatory stereotypes of fans or intolerant beforeany positive assessment of its impact on the peninsula. Duke Evaristo San Miguel praised Conde’s work, contributing and demonstrating that the Arabs brought civilization. 

In a struggle in which different conceptualizations of the past confronted were attenuated with the distraction that the Spanish-Moroccan war meant. That added to political instability from the glorious revolution to exile Queen Elizabeth II that will last until the arrival of King Alfonso XII. Eduardo Saavedra in his speech of entry into the Royal Spanish Academy in 1878 adopted a moderate Pro Moorish position in which he affirmed, through the aljamiad texts that the Moorish managed to integrate into the Christian society.

On the other hand, Antonio Cánovas, conservative and prime minister during the first years of the restoration, considered that the compassion for the Moors was foolishness, since these and the Christians hated each other and that their expulsion was a democratic act in response toThe popular will, which actually disguised him as democratic to justify his own political machinations. From the 60s of the 19th century until the end of the century, two figures will stand out in Spanish Arabism. Francisco Fernández and González, of the Krausist liberal movement had an idea of modernization of the country through a combination between reason and spirituality that defended the educational reform and religious tolerance. And Francisco Javier Simonet. 

Fernández and González defended the historical and cultural achievements of Al Ándalus at ultranza. While Simonet, a Catholic and anti -Krausist devote. It was more for the semi -inheritance, being Simonet as an Arabist who hated the Arabs, since it made too much allusion to terms such as Spanish or Spanish race to refer to the Mozarabic responsible for the contributions of Al Ándalus to world civilization, therefore, the Academy of History published its work in a posthumous way, since it received at the time the refusal by Sudén towards the Arabs and resorted to inflate to the extreme the Mozarabic achievements. 

Otherwise, it occurs with Fernández and González who did their work on the Mudejares, Mozarabic counterparts in Christian territory, and was awarded and published by the Academy. General Culture Magazines of Great Tirado provided different visions within Spanish Arabism and illustrated magazines, which contained images of Hispano -Arab monuments such as the Tower of the Giralda de Sevilla and the Alhambra de Granada fostered tourism towards cities such as Granada, who went fromTourism was of accommodated class people, since the railroad could pay,


From my position, the author who gives me greater sympathy is Francisco Fernández and González, since he explains the story of Al Ándalus that personalities of Christian and Islamophobic belief intended to isolate and attribute greater greatness to the Mozarabic for the simple fact of being Christians. As Conde says in the text: it is neither the first nor the last time that the Spanish medieval past is convened to comment this appointment was mostly used by the previously indicated personalities that were mostly related to the conservative ideology andThey made use of the Spanish medieval past, especially to attribute greatness to the areas of Christian influence, such as resistance nuclei, their culture and battles towards the Muslim world of the Peninsula. 

Together with the incorrect use of the democratic opinion of Cánovas del Castillo, who used the word democracy to justify his political interests camouflaged in the ‘popular will’. To conclude, I do not understand why discrediting the inheritance that left us for history almost eight centuries of Muslim domain, in the place of being proud to have such great legacy in what to the facts of history respects.

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