Iraq War – They will go from 1980 to 1988 and the economy
The conflict between Iraq-Iran, was by inheritance of the Persian Empire and the Ottoman Empire, the Iraqi regime attacked Irrse, which seemed at a time that was going to sweep with the resistance of Irrse, Saddam stopped his troops and that gave time to Will go to recover and carry out the counterattack. This war even though it was not very long, various ways of attacking were used, such as throwing mustard gas pumps and Sarin gas to continue with war; This war left a huge amount of dead, injured and others infected with gases. Iraq, seeing that he has spent many resources, either buying products to extract oil, he was forced to invade Iran to recover the economy he had lost, but they will see that they were invading it began to call their troops to defend His country until the last one, then from there also began to give war between these two sides.
Oil, it was also the main factor for this war to occur, since Iran was enriched with oil and that is why Iraq had its plans to invade Iran; But this war ended without a clear winner because the two were in their last ones, they no longer had soldiers or ammunition to continue with this war then both countries were forced to take care of this, they had to sign the resolution of the resolution of 598 that the UN proposed to cease this war, this covenant was signed in 1987 to have a peace agreement and that both countries no longer have this destructive war that left thousands of people dead and wounds for each country.
The women had an important role, since they were in charge of raising their children and took care of domestic tasks, and finally the women gave their children to the military to help in wars and women had the right to claim the belongings of their husbands and relatives who have died in the war.
Chapter I: Background of War
As I deepened in reading this war, I could get more knowledge, about how this war began. Analyzing the war well taken its historical starting point with the signing of the Erzerum Treaty of 1847, between the Ottoman and Persia Empire that wanted to conquer territories, but made a decision to equally distributed territories, which had not been conquered and that each one It was distributed in parts, west of the province of Zahab becomes belonging to the Ottoman Empire, and the eastern part of the Jabaliyeh and Darreh provinces for Persia. In the Persian region of Suleymaniyeh, Persia renounced any claim over its territory. The Ottoman Empire renounced Jorramshahr, on the left side of the El-Arab chat and the island of Al-Jazr.
Chat El-Arab, was the first border agreement that served as the basis for the Iraqi claim signed in 1913 and reaffirmed in 1937 by Iraqi sovereignty, so that these two boundaries are stared, which are the Tigris river and the river Euphrates oil rich in oil, but with this union Iraq takes total control of the waters and ships to sail freely they would do it under Iraqi flag paying until toll. Given the impossibility of breaking the point in the terrestrial fighting, and under the pressure of the Iraqi attacks against their oil assets, Iran has moderated a lot in recent weeks its demands to meet the UN resolution that asks the belligerents to CONCLUSION OF A HIGH FIRE.
While since the first years of the war he had been claiming the overthrow of the Iraqi leader, Sadam Husein, and his party, Baaz, as well as the payment of astronomical compensation, is currently satisfied that an international commission rules who the aggressor was the aggressor. This moral satisfaction seems won in advance, because everyone knows that it was the Iraqi troops that invaded the territory of their neighbor on September 22, 1980. (Canella, 1987, P. 1) An Iranian merchant, accompanied by warships, crossed the waters for dispute reasons without paying the toll, but Iraq did not take actions to this fact. The support of the Iranian regime towards the Iraqi Kurds, was growing rapidly in economics, weapons and assistants, because Iraq was on the verge of collapse; Then, in the years 1973-74, there were various armed events between the two Iraq-Iran countries, but Iran began to extend artillery in Iraqi territory and anti-aircraft batteries to defeat military aircraft in combat in combat.
Treaty of Algiers
In 1975, the treaty of Algiers was signed, so Iran is committed to end The deep line of waters. In 1979, Sha Mohammed Abandon Iran and declared Iran’s regime, which will be headed by its spiritual leader, Ruhollah Jomeini. In that same year Saddam Hussein is honest as president of Iraq, claiming that the previous treaties that delimited the border between the two countries were favorable to Iran. The war began with the invasion of Iran, led by Ruhollah Jomeini, on September 22, 1980, when Iraqi forces attacked the province of Judicial, rich in oil, in which millions of Arabs lived, Hussein expected the support of Jomeini, what That never happened.
The Iraqi regime attacked Iran, who seemed at a time that was going to destroy Iran’s resistance, Saddam stopped his troops and that gave time to recover and carry out the counterattack. The conflict has its roots into an old territorial dispute over the margins of the Shatt al-Arab, a river formed by the confluence of the Tigris and the Euphrates, an oil rich area, and the suspicions of Saddam Hussein about the possibilities of the Islamic regime of Tehran will encourage rebellion among the important Iraqi Shiite population. Saddam also took into account the international isolation of the Jomeini regime, then faced with the US.UU. and to the USSR. Finally, the economic difficulties ended up appealing to Jomeini of him to any type of negotiated agreement. The war with so much conflict, this ended in a practical tie, but human losses were huge. There is talk of a million casualties, but there are sources that double that figure. (Ocaña, 2003, P. 1)
The Iranian revolution contained clear threats to Iraqi stability not only because the Iranians infiltrated saboteators in the neighboring country in the aid of the Kurdish uprising but because in it there was an important Shiite population and even this version of the Muslim religion had had its origin and First development. This began towards a war that ended up complicating the situation in the Middle East. Iran not only sank but the war against the border adversary served him to move his army against him, train hard in his political militias and take away the attention of his own difficulties. On the other hand, Iraq began to know the consequences of his recklessness and began to feel powerful, and this led him to make large investments in materials to invade any country.
Not only his army was discovered, it was not effective as expected, but also caused a realignment of the international medium policy of the Middle East was contrary to his interests. Iran was sustained by the most powerful and radical Arab powers such as Libya and Syria; The latter was essential for Iraq since the pipeline that passed through it was closed and therefore the export of Iraqi oil was reduced to less than a third; Even Israel ended up supporting Iran indirectly by providing weapons. In total there could have been a million dead, two of injured and many other refugees. Iran lost the Abadán refinery and had to resort to imports to have oil derived products. The Americans lost a frigate of their naval force aimed at controlling maritime routes. (Arthistory, 2005, P. 1)
Because of the large amounts of injured and dead, he led to no more human losses and as they could no longer with this Iraq war made a little rest to recover, but they will go in that little time of rest he made many strategies to do the counterattack to Iraq for having invaded them. Finally, after the attacks of the Iranian army were about Iraqi positions, they were during the first months of 1988, as lacking in effectiveness as those made by Iraq in 1980, Jomeini ended up accepting a UN resolution that imposed peace.
Chapter II: Causes of war
In the war between Iraq and Iran there was mainly a discontent for having broken diplomatic relations thanks to the conflicts between territories, on the other hand, Iraq was concerned about religious propaganda directed since the new Islamic Republic of Iran. (Carmen, 2016, P. 1) Already in 1971, Iraq had broken diplomatic relations with Iran, due to territorial conflicts. In addition, Iraq was worried about religious propaganda directed since the new Islamic Republic of Iran. However, the main reason for the war was the belief of Iraq president, Saddam Hussein, that Iran’s military power had largely weakened by the Iranian revolution of 1979, which overthrew Sha Mohammad Reza Pahlevi.
Use of chemical weapons
Various mortal weapons were used to continue with the war and not be destroyed quickly, because Iraq had more power and that is why Iran began to throw chemical bombs so as not to be destroyed rapid, on May 16 the mustard gas and the Sarìn gas were used, To continue with war. The long -term effects on an individual can include the weakening of the lungs, chest pain and chronic cancer of the mouth, throat, respiratory and skin zone. It has connected to cause leukemia and congenital evils. More than 7000 civilians, including women and children died when inhale of Mustaza Gas and Sarín gas. In the palace, the hardships passed through another side. (Claudio, 2014, P. 1) Mustard gas attacks the skin, eyes, lungs, the damage that this causes is late, since it is causing death little by little inside, without feeling the systems at the beginning, this gas causes loss of sight, skin blisters, nausea and burning in the lungs. Sarin gas attacks the central nervous system, this gas caused a difficulty when breathing, nausease and even dies due to suffocation.
The Kurdish problem
The so -called ‘Oil War’ began since 1984 consisted of the attack by Iran to ships tanks of third nations, including Liberian ships, Saudies and Kuwaities, through air bombardments and Iranian attacks to neutralize oil exports Iraqi and those of their allies. The escalation that threatened the flow of crude oil exports, especially brought to 1986 the involvement of the powers. (Anònimo, Pararalibros, 1998, P. 1) The war that occurred between these two countries was more because of the oil that I had, but since Iraq wanted to expand, he invaded I would go for that oil source that would later make it grow as a country, but Iran did not want me to invade him , Iran had to fight them by throwing bombs and chemical gases against them. “Iraq’s debts were, only with the oil monarchies, 40.000 million dollars. There was an entire fleet built in Italy worth almost 3 billion dollars that could never pay, and the invoices of the USSR and France did not stop increasing interest of the interests. Iraq got 15.000 million dollars a month thanks to oil, but I was spending 16.000 In the same period to stock up … the economic situation was catastrophic ”. (Anònimo, El Gran Capità, 2006, P. 1)
Iraq to enrich he had to make very large expenses that would leave him almost without economy, but with Iraq oil machinery he could recover the lost and even more than normal with the extraction of oil, but since he did not want to be alone on one side he began to Invadir will go to have more economic income, but Iran had to get strong so that they did not invade it as easily as the Iraqi country had thought about since the two sides began to throw any number of bombs, bullets, toxic gases to win this war causing a lot of damage to the Iranian country.
It is important to note that Iraq and Iran had been tension between them for a long time. A reason why there were tension are religious differences. Iran is populated by Shiite Muslims, however, Iraq has a Sunnite minority (40 % of the population) that controls the government, and 60 % of Shiites. The Sunnitas (especially Saddam Hussein) were afraid that the Shiites would follow the steps of the Iranian citizens and rebel against them. (Sánchez, N.d., p. 1) This cause was reflected more as religion, since each country had various customs, traditions and especially its religious difference. This difference is given by the death of the prophet Muhammad, when his followers began to wonder among them, who is going to stay in the Islamic government; Others began to say that it should be assigned to their cousin and son -in ideologies.
Chapter III: Consequences of war
In the war between Iraq and Iran there was mainly a discontent for having broken diplomatic relations thanks to the conflicts between territories, on the other hand, Iraq was concerned about religious propaganda directed since the new Islamic Republic of Iran. However, this was not all since the spark of all this war movement was because of the belief of Iraq president, Saddam Hussein, that Iran’s military power had largely weakened by the Iranian revolution of 1979 and support of the western part. (Leonardo, 2016, P. 1)
This war despite the fact that it was short, left a huge amount of dead and wounded, since the economy of both countries was very low, due to the great material expenses that were made throughout this war, one of those expenses were The oil facilities, since with them they could extract oil, to recover from their great economic loss they had to buy these materials. The main consequences of the war in Iraq will not arise on the battlefield. They will come later, and they will depend on whether Bush and Blair can justify their onslaught against a largely helpless people. They undertook this war for certain declared reasons, all passionately discussed throughout the world. If they are justified, it can be assumed that war could bring us a safer world. If your arguments are to be demonstrated or refuted, war will induce instability. The war against Iraq was not justified, nor could it be justified, before the world claiming that Saddam Hussein is a tyrant. (Sachs, 2003, P. 1)
This war was also caused by the transfer of weapons made by Western countries to Iran and Iraq, even when Jomeini made peace with Iraq, he was not happy, since this war was a draw, but Jomeini wanted to be the winner of this Guerra, and he said that having accepted the peace treaty, for him was like drinking bitter drink. The war conflict between Iraq and Iran, which lasts 2 weeks and whose departure seems increasing Of the western economies of a scarce and dramatically concentrated resource in a few countries, which are not distinguished precisely by their political-social stability. The consequences derived from this war from the point of view of oil supplies to the West are currently analogous to those created in early 1979, as a consequence of the Iranian crisis.(Centeno, 1980, P. 1)
This crisis that Iraq had was very large since the part that had an expense for oil extraction, also armament spending to start a war with any country that would oppose him in his plans to invade any city or country to continue growing demographically and In economics.
Impact on the civilian population
The civilian population of the cities of the Iranian judgment, mainly Jorramshar Yabadán (in which the fighting with the Iraqi forces have been and are more fierce), are suffering physically and psychologically the harsh consequences of the war. Iraqi aviation and artillery bombings -especially with Earth -Tierra rockets, which have taken multiple lives of women and children and have forced the exodus of the inhabitants of the cities towards more safe regions. (Anònimo, El Paì, 1980, P. 1)
The sequels were marked for a lifetime in Iran, since the war began there, and no one expected that it would last eight consecutive years in Iran, which today left certain spoils like: shortage of water, on the other hand, they look for their relatives who have disappeared in war or who have died in war, to bury them, it is said that more than one million dead and two million injured in both countries, since one wanted to be more powerful than the other. Iraq and they will see that all their soldiers were exhausted and could no longer have to stop, or else this war was leaving with the help of international countries, then both countries were forced by the UN, already They did not fight and had to sign the resolution of 598, this was signed in 1987, it consisted of ceasing the waters and having a peace agreement, so that both countries do not have this war so destructive and that they no longer have the acquisition of invading to other countries.
The role of women
The women in Iraq, in constancy of the Iraq war and Iran 1980-88, the woman was considered privileged among the Arab world, since they had a respect and they in Iraq had the greatest number of women who had given light in that year And that with that children raised them to be worth war and they take care of the domestic task until their husbands come from the war, something that nobody expected it, because nobody knew if her husband or familiar would return after this horrible catastrophe. In Iran, the value of a woman’s life is half of a man’s. For years they are organized to recognize the most elementary civic rights, such as divorcing, working, or traveling without the prior authorization of a male member of their family. Despite the discrimination of women in law and in practice, Iranians have reached a high level of education and perform prominent roles in society, but continue with that sexist practice. (Shojaee, 2013, P. 1)
Women in Iran, women to receive the payment of the death of their husbands or family Family and that is why the female side was affected and they had to give their children for war.
In conclusion, this war was one of the most disastrous in a short period of time that left thousands of people dead and other injuries, some for wanting to invade and others that defended themselves so as not to be invaded; But in itself this war was in vain since no one won in this war, but left great sequelae to Iran since there was this disastrous war leaving them without water and without sources of work for a certain time, this war more what brought misfortunes For Iran; This war did not give more because the two countries were so exhausted that they could no longer get up to continue with this war then it is where the UN intervened, with the pact of the resolution of 598 to cease this war and end up in a Peace agreement for these two countries, but as a person who does not agree with the solution they have taken, this person was called Jomeini who wanted to be the winner with Iran but since this did not occur, Jomeini said that this Treaty was like having taken a bitter drink that would last until death. This war brought certain consequences for each country leaving them in the ruins, which until today continue with that fear of losing large amounts of people and for the short time of war that lasted, left the world stunned by this great disastrous war.
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