- Show more
Insecurity and its relationship with economics and politics
Insecurity and crime are obtaining a more global position in which everyone influences a diverse society, leaving aside a homogeneous position of it and that generates conflicts between the actors of society. People live with fear, and the greater the effort in immediate remedies, the more we move away from the real goal of solving the problem.
Analyzing the issue we can define insecurity as the lack of security on the individual and their environment, that continuous danger to different factors that may occur. Social insecurity refers to violence, crimes, crime and discomfort that affects society as a whole, such as the crime, the main source of social insecurity is the violation of the law in force in a rule of law and that candemonstrate in various ways, although, in all of them violence is very present. These acts contrary to the current law generate a constant sensation of insecurity and vulnerability within the population. Since everything that endangers security will cause a feeling of insecurity, being able to generate as an analyzing Giddens (1982) individuals with deviant behavior are those who refuse to live according to the rules that we accept the majority that do not adapt toWhat most people would define as normal acceptability rules, which is why deviation can be defined as the lack of compliance with a series of given norms, which are accepted by a significant number of people from a community or society. All social norms are accompanied by sanctions that encourage compliance and that protect against the lack of it. The same standard can generate, as Durkheim defines (1912) an anomia that is the absence of norms, the transgressive trend of the rules, both at collective level, when a severe crisis of the social structure breaks the existing norms and new standards stillThey are not consolidated, or also at the individual level when the norms are not permanently met, based on a functionalist look as a method of return to the system, there must be a sanction method in which, the sanction is any type of reaction byothers before the behavior of an individual or group in order to ensure that a certain norm is fulfilled.
The biggest security problem is the anomia of the norm although it is only the principle since that generates criminal conduct within society, as Bauman (2000) analyzes (2000) the increase in crime is not a problem of carelessness or malfunctionof society, but a product of the same consumer society, in which the gap is increasingThat they act, that generates conflict environments and red areas in the cities. Referring to UruguayNew scenarios have often contributed to generating environments where minority groups grow and marginalization increases. There is no longer a single social group belonging to a nation or region, but multiple groups arise in various spaces, stimulating the lack of geographical and social belonging, distrust and feeling of insecurity. The lack of education, containment and resources leads to broad social sectors to situations of alienation and violence that contribute to the feeling of insecurity by society as a whole, that feeling is given by the social action that each individual has, such asWe Weber (1922) social action as any type of human proceeding oriented by the actions of another, which can be present or expected as future. This social action occurs in all current situations with insecurity is that fear or distrust of the other thus achieving a label of the other individual, one of the most important approaches to understanding crime is called the theory of labeling, according to the theory of the label analyzed byBecker (1963) interpret the deviation not as a series of characteristics of individuals or groups, but as a process of interaction between deviants and not diverted. Those who represent the forces of law and order or those that can impose definitions of conventional morality to others constitute the main source of labeling. Therefore, the labels used to create deviation categories express the power structure of society. In general, the rules that define the deviation and the contexts in which they are applied, are defined by the rich for the poor, men for women, the elderly for young people and ethnic majorities for minorities.
That generates powers and a field of action of them, according to Bourdieu (1995) we can then say that the structure of a field is defined by three interrelated aspects, a set of interest at stake, defined rules and agents willing to playendowed with the habitus necessary to develop such a game, that is, to have the necessary disposition systems to fight and privileges of that field. A state of relationship of forces between agents and institutions involved in the fight, each armed with its own capital accumulated in previous struggles and that guides the strategies to follow and finally gives a tacit agreement between the agents that there are a series of interestscommon linked to the very existence of the field, a situation that defines, an objective complicity that underlies all antagonisms.
How it is observed in Bourdieu (1995) is not probable through individual social mobility. It is necessary to modify the statute of the institutions. In Foucault (1997) this is also present: humanism consists in wanting to change the ideological system without touching the institution;reformism to change the institution without touching the ideological system. Bourdieu (1995) examines the central role of symbolic violence in the preservation of social normality and forms of political action capable of facing the dominant symbolic order. Also for Bauman (2000) security without freedom makes us slaves, but with freedom without security you are a kind of plankton floating around, not a human being. In reference to the State and its ability to discern between a narco and a laborer, for Bauman unlike the working class;the class that fulfills an indispensable function for society and the lower class;which belongs to the image of a society with mobility, the infraclase refers to a society that is not accessible to all, which excludes a category of people to whom the law is applied by denying or withdrawing its application, people without market value, andAs are useless, only the dangers they represent are repaired. Violence, crime and incivilities make up a marginal culture that destroys all the principles of tolerance, coexistence and respect for shared space. The problem is defined in terms of citizen cultures, that is, as the sum of behaviors, values, attitudes and perceptions that members of a society share. The insecurity in Uruguay constitutes a decisive fact of the Uruguayan social process. Among other reasons, because for decades cracks have been warned in structures, crisis in protection systems, deterioration of social ties and fears in men and women. The authority of the State evaporates in the context of a liquid modernity and a development that incessantly generates a contingent of excluded. In our country, fear has become an articulator of sociability.
Speeches on insecurity refer to subjects and places. In addition to the strong consensus that are obtained, it is possibleThe territory: ‘marginal/peripheral/red zones’. On the other hand, in the middle class groups the specification level increases by linking it fundamentally to specific neighborhoods, while in the lower classes an effort to delimit and intensify as insecure to very specific places (a corner, a dance, etc.) and/or particular people/inhabitants of a certain neighborhood or with certain behaviors or practices ”(Filardo et al., 2007). Speeches on insecurity subjects usually converge towards figures marked by age and socioeconomic level. In recent decades the problem of insecurity has been profiled as one of the priority issues in the national agendas of Latin America countries. The increase in crimes rates and the high sense of insecurity have led to the development of control and prevention policies that emphasize the control of "new crime", linked to crimes against people and property. So that ethnomethodology refers to a method that people have. It is a knowledge of everyday affairs that can be revealed in the form of practical reasoning. Ethnomethodological studies analyze everyday activities as methods that their members use to make these activities rationally visible and reportable for all practical purposes, that is, explainable of practical actions, practical circumstances, of common sense knowledge of the structures.
Finally, we will rely on the homicide rate, they are probably the most precise of all statistics on crime. It is important to highlight the relatively routine character of many violent crimes. Murders usually occur in the context of family and interpersonal relationships. We will use the statistics of the Ministry of Interior made in 2011, 2012, 2013. In 2011 the homicide rate was 286 although it is divided into two categories, consummated that are 199 and attempts at homicides that are 87. In 2012, homicides were 267, in this case we do not have the same categories of the previous year, although we can analyze that the highest percentage of the reason for committing a homicide is due to account adjustments and conflict between criminals, in turnWe have the homicides consummated by minors that are 38. And in 2013 there was a decrease in homicides of 3% variation with the previous year, under the homicide to 258.
It would be a mistake to see crime and deviation from a totally negative point of view. Any society that recognizes that human beings have different values and concerns must find a space for individuals or groups whose activities do not adapt to the rules that the majority follow. A society that is tolerant of deviant behavior does not have to suffer social disorder. If there is no balance between freedom and equality, and many people do not feel realized, it is very likely that deviant behavior was oriented towards socially destructive ends.
In current times, insecurity is accompanied by the feeling of vulnerability and protection against risks is the ability to adapt each one, since insecurity corresponds to the real manifestations of violence and crime. We must assume what is related to concern for crime, social, economic vulnerability and the replacement of social ties for individual autonomy.
Therefore, the feeling of insecurity is an autonomous reality based on complex sociocultural, political and economic processes.