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Importance of microbiology in life and its application in biology and chemistry
When we talk about microbiology, we refer to the science that studies and analyzes microorganisms, those tiny living beings that are not visible to the human eye, that is, they must be analyzed through the microscope.
These microorganisms are found in all the planet’s ecosystems, they were the first to evolve, and according to biology, they are our ancestors.
Microbiology has a very strong impact, not only on health sciences, but also in the field of agriculture, industry, commerce, energy resource, among others.
Importance of microbiology for life
Microbiology is important for life because it is studying microorganisms as we have said before, that in one way or another they affect, either positively or negatively to living beings, especially humans.
An example of this are those microorganisms, viruses, bacteria, fungi or parasites that can bring diseases, which harms the health of men.
‘Microbial diseases have undoubtedly played a fundamental role in historical events, such as the fall of the Roman Empire and the Conquest of the New World. In 1347 the black plague or death devastated Europe with a brutal force. In 1351, only four years later, the plague had killed 1/3 of the population (approximately 25 million people) ’. González, f. (2009).
For this reason, microbiology in the field of health is of great importance, since we can identify what type of microorganisms are, how they occur, that alters them, and other factors that will help to know how we can fight them and look for possible solutions.
As for energy resources, microbiology is essential, since there are some microorganisms, which use their metabolic activity to convert some waste into gas sources, which can be used as fuel (biogas). Some bacteria also carry out a process called bioremediation, which consists of using microorganisms to eliminate or neutralize oil, chemical compounds or pollutants that damage the environment. These bacteria change the oxidation state from one element to another, seeking to stabilize it. Therefore they benefit the environment, reducing the risk of pollution linked to oil spills.
Another important contribution of microbiology is in industry, the manufacture of products such as alcohol, organic acids, drugs, enzymes among others. Microorganisms can also affect trade indirectly since there are some microbes that can affect plants and animals, damaging crops and cattle, which serve as a livelihood for many people and with that weakening the economic part. In agriculture studies have been carried out and have found microorganisms that cause disease to crops, but beneficial bacteria for agriculture have also been found. There are some nitrogen fixing bacteria, which help fertilize the soil, mineralizing it, forming the so -called humus, which benefits crops.
While it is true that microbiology has great benefits for living beings, we cannot leave aside the negative factors that it is also can generate, if it is poorly directed by human beings, such as biological wars, which can bring with them Many deaths, economic, social and others for nations.
Importance of microbiology in biology and chemistry
As for our career, biology and chemistry, microbiology is very involved, since this is a branch of biology that has become fundamental today, so much so that it has been divided into other branches that derive from it, as Mycology, virology, parasitology and bacteriology.
Microbiology is important and applicable in biology because in all microorganisms biological processes are carried out. Some of those microorganisms are used for the elaboration of bread, cheese, beer, antibiotics, vaccines, vitamins, enzymes and other important products. Human beings are hosts of many microorganisms, in the digestive tract we have bacteria that are colonized from birth, the large intestine is the most colonized site of the gastrointestinal tract. The microbiota increases the resistance of an organism in the presence of pathogens, since it makes access to the intestinal surface difficult.
There are many microorganisms that we have and most are beneficial, such as lactobacil, which are bacteria that help in the digestive part and can be found in digestive, urinary and genital system. Escherichia coli, this bacterium is present in the intestine, and therefore, regulates intestinal diseases such as ulcerative colitis, also stimulates the production of antibody, there are also bacteria in the vaginal area of women, which help maintain pH and prevent infections, and many more.
In general, these beneficial microorganisms help the proper functioning of the digestive system, regulating the intestine. They also collaborate in the production of nutrients such as vitamins, help in intestinal pH and protect the intestinal mucosa of harmful agents.
Another of its characteristics is that they help strengthen the immune system, and prevent various diseases related to digestion, digestive system and urinary infections. In fact, one of the applications of microbiology to biology, occur through modern biotechnology, which is based on microbiological foundations.
Experiments such as fecal microbial transplantation, is a procedure that is currently being considered to reverse dysbiosis processes. It is about incorporating fecal bacteria from a healthy donor to a patient with a given pathology. Recently it has been successfully applied in patients with clostridium difficile infection. However, some progress is still required in this area for acceptance and application in medical practice.
In relation to chemistry, we find bacteria that perform organic decomposition and mineralization processes, such as nitrifying bacteria. These are more evident in the so -called biogeochemical cycles, sulfur, carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles. Which are fundamental to humans, and for life in general.
Microbiology has always existed, even from the moment it tried to explain the origin of life in ancient times. And it has an important value on the planet, as we explain previously, many of the microorganisms inhabit all ecosystems, and processes are carried out in which they are essential, both in the health of living beings, in agriculture, in commercial, industrial and many more areas activities. Therefore it is necessary to highlight the importance it is in society and on the planet itself.
Microbiology is a knowledge tool whose application par excellence is intended to improve the quality of life of human beings, with the necessary precautions to use these concepts in a consequent and respectful way to others.
- J.L. Archés, e. Rodríguez, s. Langa, j.M. Landete, m. Medina.Antimicrobial Activity of Lacic Acid Bacteria in Dairy Products and Gut: Effect on Pathogens.Biomed res int., 2015 (2015), pp. 584183.
- González, f. (2009). Importance of microbiology.http: // inter-micro-UVM.over-blog.ES/ARTICLE-33657810.HTML.