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Consequences and conflicts of World War II
World War II has been one of the most complex war conflicts with serious consequences for both the countries involved and for the operation of the international system. This essay presents the economic, social and political consequences that this war caused. After the definitive defeat of Germany by the United States and the Soviet Union in April 1945, in Japan, the United States sent atomic bombs to Hiroshima and Nagasaki, where the Japanese government was forced to surrender and, ended World War IIIn August 1945. This victory meant for the United States the opportunity to establish its power model throughout the Pacific.
The policy that was carried out in the postwar. These three had different ideologies, but managed to function to achieve their objective. The ideology of the president of the United States, Franklin D. Roosevelt, was in favor of human rights and the right of citizens to choose their own form of government. In Great Britain, Prime Minister Winston Churchill had imperialist ideals, completely different from those of Roosevelt. And Iósif Stalin, communist leader in the Soviet Union, was interested in expanding its territory. Stalin thought that: "Whoever occupies a territory also imposes its own social system," Bell and Gilbert.
At the Yalta Conference (1945) they met ‘The Big Tres’ to seek the solution for the problems that the war involved. Mainly, he agreed with a new world organization, the United Nations, where Roosevelt revived the idea of Woodrow Wilson of World War I;This was of great importance to the United States, since, to date, it remains the international organization to maintain the peace and security of the countries that make it up. Of the winning powers, the country that was demonstrated as the strongest power after World War II was the United States, which during the war managed to increase its economy because it focused on the arms industry.
Like, the United Nations Organization (UN) took an important role in implementing the economic interests of the United States. Although in this war one of the most devastating consequences was the number of civilians and military who lost their lives, the United States lost approximately 274,000 citizens, less than the other victorious countries. On the other hand, the Soviet Union did not have the same fate despite being one of the winning powers. This nation lost approximate 8,668,000 lives. And although the Soviet Union had a great military power, it was economically destroyed by what Stalin was concerned about the security of his nation. While, Great Britain lost 350,000 lives.
Nothing compared to the Soviet Union. Great Britain was the nation that fought from the beginning for what were too weakened;Industrial production had dropped as well as gold reserves. Due to the economic condition in which they presented they had to resort to asking for a loan from the United States. On the other hand, France lost an estimated 600,000 French lives in the war. And like Britain, it was very economically weakened due to the lack of industrial production and food shortage;And he also had to ask for a loan from the United States. However, the North American country granted France to be a permanent member in the UN Security Council.
Finally, China, which is considered one of the victorious countries in this war. At the time the war ended, China was devastated by the amount of years at war;13 million lives were lost throughout this time. This nation was not considered a true power in the international system, but was granted as the fifth member of the Security Council. The countries defeated in this war suffered the worst consequences. In Germany, the Army of the Allies completely took the country, eliminating every German government. The fate of this country was decided at the Potsdam Conference, where it was agreed that the allies were going to take care of this.
Economically and administratively;New political institutions were gradually introduced. For Japan, the emperor was allowed to remain as a continuity symbol. This country was conditioned by the winning powers to renounce the acquired territories, as well as, to democratize their government and prioritize fundamental human rights. Japan lost around 2,700,000 civilians and military, including the victims of atomic bombs. For these two countries, something that did not happen in the First World War arose, Japanese leaders and Japanese leaders were taken to trial. ‘The three great’ created an international military court in Nuremberg, where a one -year trial against 22 Germans was held.
Japan’s trial was held in Tokyo from 1946 to 1948. 28 Japanese leaders were submitted to trial, but due to the lack of a unanimous verdict, the expected impact was not obtained. In response to the need for new institutions that organized international relations, the United Nations Organization (UN), the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank were created, adding the creation of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (Birf) and the International Development Association (AIF). The first new international organization proposed by Roosevelt was the United Nations, it is like overcoming the failed League of Nations created after World War I.
In 1942, United States leaders, Great Britain, China and the Soviet Union joined in Washington, where the United Nations Declaration was signed. The UN is aimed at promoting collective security through war prevention, as well as promoting international peace through economic and social cooperation. In the same way, the countries that make up this organization must promote respect for universal human rights. The Organization of Nations is formed by three main bodies: the General Assembly, which are all Member States;the Security Council, made up of five permanent members and six members elected temporarily.
And the secretary, which is the administrative body, elected for five years. At that time it was sought to create a new world exchange system and this was achieved at the Bretton Woods conference in July 1944. Two new organizations were created, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. The first, the IMF, was initially created in order to prevent the economic problems of war, so that the nations did not end economic reserves. Currently, it works by guaranteeing international financial stability promoting cooperation;It seeks to facilitate international trade and achieve economic growth. In this international fund, each member must comply with the fee depending on the economy of each country.
The World Bank was created with the purpose of financing the reconstruction of countries involved after a war, as well as, they offer financial support to countries on the way to development. This organization is made up of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (BIRF) and the International Development Association (AIF), where these organizations are responsible for providing advice to these developing countries. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (BIRF) supports countries of medium entering and countries on the way to development, while, the International Development Association (AIF) is responsible for advising the poorest countries in the world.