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Comparative approach to qualitative research
Through the history of science, various currents have emerged such as empiricism, dialectical materialism, positivism, phenomenology and structuralism, which have made different branches emerge in the persecution of knowledge.
In spite of this, and due to the different premises that support them, since 1950 or around it, these currents have polarized in two main approaches: the quantitative approach and the qualitative approach of the investigation.
Qualitative research originates in another branch of social sciences, Max Weber, introduces the term ‘Wersteben’ or ‘Understanding’, recognizing that in addition to the description and measurement of social variables, subjective meanings and the understanding of the context where it occurs should be considereda phenomenon.
In general terms, the two approaches use some similar phases:
- They carry out observation and evaluation of phenomena.
- Establish assumptions or ideas as a consequence of the observation evaluation carried out.
- They prove and demonstrate the degree to which assumptions or ideas have foundation.
- Such assumptions or ideas based on tests or analysis.
- They propose new observations and evaluations to clarify, modify, cement and/or base the assumptions and ideas;or even to generate others.
The qualitative approach, usually uses first to find and define questions given in the investigation. Sometimes, although not necessarily, hypotheses are proven but the specific results that are normally based on methods of obtaining data without numerical measurement, such as some descriptions and situations observed Hernández R, Fernández C, & Baptista Pilar.
Usually, the questions and hypotheses propose as part of the research process and its flexibility, and that move between events and its interpretation, between the results and development of a theory. The purpose refers to ‘rebuild’ reality, as well as that observed in the actors of a social and previously defined situation.
In the transcendental, are there characteristics which stand out in the quantitative approach of the investigation? Generally, the quantitative study selects an opinion or an idea, which the transformation or several important research questions;After these branches, the hypothesis and variables are derived;the development of a plan to verify them;ensures the variables in a given context;Think the measurements obtained and organize a series of conclusions related to the hypothesis.
Mainly, what are the characteristics that excel the qualitative approach related to research? Qualitative approaches are also carried by significant research areas or topics. On the other hand, instead of clarity about research and hypotheses questions continue to obtain information analysis, qualitative research can build previous hypotheses questions, through collection and analysis and that in the process they move energy between’activities’ and interpretation in several ways.
Mainly, so far it is that the reader contains to evaluate whether one of them is better than the other. On the other hand, the need to understand, so far, have traditionally been approximately different ways to the study of various issues. This approach part of differences in the epistemological, which in a nutshell has the meaning of position takes a researcher or takes each one before reality. Sociological knowledge is the social goal generally speaking.
Characteristics of the two approaches and their differences
The qualitative approach auspiciously focuses on the dispersion or extension of the information obtained instead the quantitative aims to limit the information.
The quantitative approach is based on the hypothetical-deductive method considering the following points.
- Reduce theories to generate hypothesis.
- Submit tests establishing research designs.
When the responses of different investigations give favorable evidence the hypothesis, a trust is generated in the theory that tends to be viable. Otherwise, the hypothesis is discarded and progressively the theory.
Taking into account the premises, there are other considerations in the qualitative method. Just as Martínez (2012) mentioned that subjective reality is not eliminated much less to personal experiences.
Generally, this process is applied to the quantitative approach as well as qualitative, clearly, with differences which are wide and each stage is analyzed.
On this occasion, it will be commented that in the studies mostly in the quantitative ones, this process is applied sequentially, begins with ideas that are shortened and once almost ready, the objectives are established and the research questions as well as the literature which reviews andBuild a framework based on perspective
Emphasizing that in the collection of information you can involve an instrument that is naturally qualitative. On the one hand, the research of the qualitative method and in its process is not applied consecutively, although its form could be applied in the same way.
The settlement of the problem with their own objects to study and their own questions of a justification together with the research as well as the hypotheses that consequently are emerging from anywhere in the process in the study with qualitative, from that idea it has been developed to somepoint, wanting to prepare a report which has been investigated. In the same way, that in a quantitative investigation which said approach is susceptible to the modification.
Goodness of each of the approaches
Quantitative research offers possibilities to generalize results that broadly give control about phenomena that about to be seen as a count with these magnitudes. Therefore, this provides a request for replica, since this approach cope.
On the other hand, qualitative research has a goodness of deepening information, perhaps the dispersion, even the amplitude of interpretation, or the contextualization of a type of environment or surroundings, more thoroughly and with not repeated experiences, like this.an observation point which is fresh, as well as natural or holistic of such phenomena with such flexibility.
Sequentially, both methods go beyond being used as such sciences, whether physical, biology or chemistry. Therefore, they are more appropriate to be called Exact Sciences. The qualitative method has been used in different humanitarian disciplines as ethnography, social psychology even anthropology. However, these studies have a different use and which have different uses in all fields, as will try to develop and demonstrate in this essay.
Dominant approach model
In the following model, the study is developed in a low perspective one of two approaches, which is established, the investigation is maintained with a different component of approach. Taking as an example a sociological study to know that sequelae of an act of aberration of sexual violence to young adults of both sexes, acted in the city of Colombia. It is about qualitative investigation, to which they will have to add a quantitative asset. Improve and manage a standardized test to know how anxious young people are now after the event.
This mixed model is represented as the highest degree related to integration or the combination of the two approaches of which we have been discussing.
The two approaches are used at the same time as an investigation that are intermingled or combined that are carried out in the research process entirely, or although this does not really happen, if it occurs in most stages. This is required to have complete control of both approaches and also requires having an open mind to possibilities.
The research process requires the use of two thought schemes which is inductive and even deductive, so also that it requires a part of the researcher which needs enormous dynamism in the process. This also requires a point of having a link between the qualitative approach and the quantitative approach.
- Martínez R, H. (2012) Research Methodology. CENGAGE LEARNING. Mexico
- Hernández R, Fernández C, & Baptista Pilar (2003) Research Methodology. McGraw-Hill. Mexico.
- Morone G. (Without date) Methods and techniques of scientific research.
- Ramírez A, F & Zwerg V, A. (2012) Research Methodology, more than a recipe. Medellín