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Chinese Geopolitics: New World Order
China has the necessary capacity (political, economic, military and technological) to establish a worldwide order other than the current? Politically the Chinese initiative and its fundamental ideas have been included in UN documents, G20, APEC among other organizations. Until the end of July 2019, the Chinese government had signed 194 cooperation agreements with 136 countries participating in the joint construction of the Strip and Route have extended from Asia and Europe to Africa, Latin America and the South Pacific Region. This nation together with international countries and partners actively participate in global governance and association as well as in the expansion of cooperation deepening friendly ties with all countries.
Economically China from 2013 to 2018, the annual average growth figure was 28.1% that led to the world’s first place. China’s contribution proportion to world economic growth was 27.5% (Hidalgo, 2019)
It is important to emphasize that China’s GDP reached 90.03 billion yuan (USD 13.6 billion). That is, it has multiplied 452.6 times and represents 16% of the world GDP. For the Chinese world economy it has become its main engine, with an increase in GDP at an annual rate of 9.4% unlike the world average of 2.9%. China has become the largest country worldwide in the product trade considering that this volume to 2018 was USD 4.6 billion surpassing the United States and becoming the largest country in merchandise trade in the world in the world. (Hidalgo, 2019)
Technologically China has become a country of technologies introduced to independent innovation, which has been strengthening its power in science, innovative cpacity and has led several avant -garde technologies that have been used in both transport and telecommunications infrastructure, the amount ofPuentes occupies the first place in the world, has built the largest mobile hancha band network in the world and the latest generation computer infrastructure is under construction, the Internet A incredibly transformed the way of obtaining information, social relations and commerce.
Militarily China in the last 20 years has greatly intensified its military power although it maintains a stable expense of its GDP as far as defense is concerned, all this focused on conquering the sea before a hypothetical American attack.
With 228.000 million dollars invested in 2017, China occupies second place in military spending behind the US. In the same way, progress in the construction of airplanes such as J-10, aircraft carrier manufactured in China, also developed advanced technology for medium and long-range missiles, thus had an increase in the military capacities that has causeddiscomfort in the neighboring countries of the region and the world. (Perlo-Freeman, Sam, 2019)
In the present China has presented an unprecedented economic, military, military and technological growth, adopting policies that allow it to be a stabilizer and driver of the economy and global hegemony, thus providing in this way in a short or medium term to establish a new world order since statesUnited continued in a political crisis by the ‘impeachment’ to Donald Trump, caused the latter to cease to be the world’s police;In the same way, Europe still does not be able to raise a single voice in foreign policy, since on the other end is China, which offers investments and easy money especially to nations such as Ukraine devastated by war since with this Ukraine would be dependent on ChinaAnd it would not allow NATO to be part of. China with its interests, defects and virtues as superpower is a member of the new reconfiguration and world -century order.
As China’s power increases, in military and economic terms, there will be a more energetic insistence on Taiwan’s reunification with the continent. Comment on the options shuffled by the RPCH, after the end of economic absorption and political digestion of Hong Kong.
Global and regional superpower, the United States, which is in danger of its supremacy in the Western Pacific and, therefore, its ability to condition in case of conflict the course of events and to guarantee the protection of its regional allies;And, perhaps more acute, in Taiwan, a country governed independently since 1949 (but largely without international recognition) and considered by China as a "rebel province" with which it has not ruled out the use of military force forAchieve reunification. (Perlo-Freeman, Sam, 2019)
The fundamental question for the United States and regional governments, as well as for foreign foreign policy analysts, is: what is the intention behind the increase in China’s military power? To what extent is it a natural process of modernization and a defensive reaction to the overwhelming US military dominance, or to what extent it represents an attempt to use a hard military power, or the threat of resorting to it, to solve by force disputesregional territorial and force Taiwan to a reunification, all of which would entail a serious risk of military conflict with the United States? (Perlo-Freeman, Sam, 2019)
The argument that the increase in China’s military power has a potentially aggressive character can be very good not only in a few words, but in nine simple stripes, the famous nine -stroke line drawn in the Chinese maps of the South China Sea (seeFigure 2). With it, the country claims in practice all that sea and all the islands in it, violating in some cases the exclusive economic zone of 200 nautical miles of its regional neighbors. The Spratly Islands and the Paracelso Islands, a traditional dispute object, have been differently occupied by China, Taiwan, Vietnam, the Philippines, Malaysia and Brunei;They are also fully claimed by China, Taiwan and Vietnam and, partially, by other countries. However, the nine -stroke line, repeated by China on a 2009 map and stated vigorously after that date, goes much further. In a litigation presented by the Philippines, the Permanent Court of Arbitration of The Hague failed in 2016 that the Chinese claims based on the nine -stroke line lacked.
They look for a less aggressive Russia, which is far from China, the main long -term west rival ’. (Iriarte, 2019) Ukrainian Prime Minister Volodymyr Groysman announced two years ago that 2019 would declare as the "Chinese year" in Ukraine. The reason? The succulent Asian investment that can get the country out of the devastating effects of the war.
Beijing’s interests in Ukraine are diverse. It is a very attractive place for its mastodontic Belt and Road project (BRI), the initiative that aims to unite China with European markets. But China has also invested billions in Ukrainian infrastructure and energy infrastructure and energy.
Xi Jinping became president of China in March 2013. In September, China announced the assignment of three million hectares of cultable land Ukrainian. With a price of 2.600 million dollars, it was the largest purchase of cultable land abroad ever made by China. According to the National Bank of Ukraine, China has surpassed Russia and Poland as the largest commercial partner in Ukraine (not counting the European Union as a whole).
In August, the former American security advisor John Bolton flew to Kyiv to stop the sale of 50% of the Motor Sich military conglomerate to China. "Military technologies should not reach our enemies," Bolton said in the visit. "We have warned our friends about the danger of Chinese investment".
The interest of the Chinese in the Ukrainian military industry is a big problem for Ukraine if in the future it wants to join NATO. “They have made it clear that they do not like the idea of selling part of our industries to China. But if they don’t help us, who can we sell them?”, Says Karaspoyov.
In strictly military matters, the Secretary of Defense pointed out in Singapore that Chinese military expenses are much higher than those officially recognized, that Beijing is buying and developing advanced arms systems and that China is expanding their missile forces and their ability toproject militarily. The secretary added that “since no country threatens China, it is worth asking: why does this growing military spending?, Why these continuous purchases of broad and growing weapons?, Why those continuous robust deployments of power?".
The most successful thesis is what China is simply waiting to have more economic power to clearly begin its hegemonic tendencies, as Deng Xiaoping said that we had to "hide our abilities and gain time" China would simply be accumulating strength for strength tobe more powerful and create at the time its own "monroe doctrine" for the rest of Asia and even an international "bread".
From the political point of view the weight of China in the world has grown a lot. Has been invited to annual G8 meetings. It has greatly promoted regional integration in the Western Pacific, with the process ASEAN+3 and the Eastern Asia Summit. He has participated more actively in the United Nations Security Council and international institutions.
This economic, military and political boom has been openly manifested in Chinese foreign policy, which has gone from being based on introspection and victimism (sometimes justified) to based on a growing mentality of great power.
Naturally, China’s boom has been observed in other countries with different prisms: admiration, envy, caution, suspicion, antipathy or fear. In this analysis you can glimpse the contours of China’s boom in the international stage;Likewise, the thesis of China "threat" is exposed, as some especially American analysts and politicians have presented and finally the theory of "peaceful ascent" is summarized, developed by Chinese specialists from the president’s environment with this we can formulateA balance of the arguments of which China can be the present and potential "threat" for the change in the geopolitics of the 21st century.
China and its boom taking into account military strengthening measures aimed at containing Beijing, political stability and significant economic growth can be pushed into an arms race for this purpose to insist on the "peaceful ascent" or not, promote its softPower worldwide and, of course, make faster movements towards a free society and a representative government.
- Hidalgo, J. A. (2019). The Chinese economic miracle. China 1949-2019, 31.
- Iriarte, d. (July 16, 2019). Do you want to understand the geopolitics of the 21st century? The confidential.
- Perlo-Freeman, Sam. (July 18, 2019). The vanguard. Obtained from https: // www.the vanguard.com/vanguardia-dossier/20190718/463406912935/power-militar-china-militarization-píligrosa-modernization-defensive.HTML