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Bioengineering in a vegetable DNA
Bioengineering is the engineering application that occurs in the manipulation of the biological systems of various species. Also, it includes techniques in which the use of living organisms or parts of them implies to create, manufacture and improve certain products. Transgenic entities are genetically modified organisms. These are born from the introduction of a gene of a living individual in the DNA of another being totally different. We can take as an example the insert in the DNA of a vegetable, a gene of a bacterium that has as a gunshot insects. Through this, totally different species are achieved from natural species.
We can achieve plants that:
- Toxic materials, arid soils and very low climates tolerate.
- Animals living in areas with cold climates.
- Animals with an evolution of accelerated growth.
In 1989, mice were produced by artificial insemination, which had the use of incubated semen. Then, the same experiment in transgenic pigs was carried out, but the integrity of the transgen was not duly analyzed and that is why the genomic DNA lines could not get the stable line of a transgenic route.
Another of the methods that was used for genetic transformation was cloning, in the eighties nuclear transfer was performed in several mammals, by means of non -differentiated embryonic cells and its subsequent nuclear transfer an example of this process was the Dolly sheep, which was created by the fusion of a nucleus that came from a mammary cell of another larger sheep, than previously to its ovule its genetic material had been extracted.
Animal improvement is influenced by its growth features and food efficiency;There is also an increase in musculature in bovine species and pigs through the elimination of mycostatic gene, this muscular increase also implies the economic increase in the commercial part. With the application, transgenic technologies could modify both the qualitative and quantitative level of meat quality, improving the physicochemical conditions that influence the conservation process.
Another product that could be improved would be milk, homologous recombination would be used to replace protein genes of this product with the counterpart of human genes to use as a source of protein. Human serroalbúmin is a protein that is used in burns, this protein that is also found in cattle would serve as a commercial scale in transgenic cows milk, but, being very similar to the human.
B-lactoglobulin is found in ruminant milk, it is believed that this is the culprit of most allergies that occur with cattle, then the elimination of this protein would help with the reduction of allergies and increasedthe concentration of caseins, which would give a great direct effect on the Queseras industries. Also used, genetically modified chimpanzees, as donor species, due to its great evolutionary resemblance to that of humans.
But, this would not go very far duepigs species that grow rapidly and prolific. But the risk was maintained due to the danger of transmitting zoonoses through the transplanted organs. Another interesting point I know in the use of transgenic goats, it has been possible to find the same fiber with which the spiders weave their fabrics in the milk of the goats.
Within the exposed analysis, we know as "transgenic organisms" to the genetically modified organisms by the implementation of a gene of another completely different species. We can say that, transgenic technologies have evolved and their progress has generated a great step in several economic aspects, but, several arrangements and modifications are still needed before each experiment is perfect, since, not all OMGS are fertile and abad step could alter the genotype and this cause changes in the phenotype, sometimes silently.
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