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Bilingual intercultural education in Ecuador
Ecuador being a multicultural country, in 1970 it crossed a struggle aimed by indigenous movements, to achieve the use of their language and cultural presence in the social, political and economic aspects of the Ecuadorian State, this gender that in 1983 within the educational fieldArt will be restructured. 27 of the Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador where it was established that the indigenous population would use their mother tongue within formal education. However, the Ecuadorian educational model continued with traditional education, where classes were in Spanish, due to the lack of prepared teachers and the total support of the State towards educational institutions. Therefore, Bilingual Intercultural Education (EIB), as an initial, basic and high school education, runs the risk that its model of the Bilingual Intercultural Education System (Moseib) is not respected. This is due to the disinterest towards the importance generated.
The problem of this research is how bilingual intercultural education helps the training and development of a plurinational country and how would this educational model are not respected, according to the art. 27 of the Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador (2008) where it was established that education must be participatory, intercultural, democratic, inclusive and diverse. Therefore, it is necessary to publicize the difference between interculturality as a political approach and EIB as an educational modality, since the first is not only limited in education, but also in the development and conservation of the plurinationality of Ecuador, whileThe second refers to formal education, in order for the practices, customs and ancestral knowledge acquired indirectly or informally. Thus, the objective is to publicize this modality to indigenous peoples for the development and maintenance of their culture.
What is intercultural? According to the Royal Spanish Academy (RAE), it is the relationship between cultures. That is to say the diversity of cultures that live together and share through the medium of the dialogue. Although in Ecuador, the indigenous movement introduced the issue of interculturality within political projects. López and Küper (1999) point out:
Since the 70s, the indigenous movement has taken strength in different Latin American countries, achieving not only becoming a valid interlocutor, but also in the State’s interpeller in terms of issues that transcend the indigenous problem itself and go beyond the initial claims on land and education and education(p. 39).
Consequently of the exclusion and marginalization they had for several years, and the need to create and make their rights as citizens respect.
This fight ended with the acceptance of interculturality as fundamental principles of the State. Even when, the indigenous movement introduced interculturality to change the education system, in 1997 the Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador-Cononeaie in the National Constituent Assembly (1997-1998), positioned interculturality as an important principle in the processes of building the Stateplurinational in all its aspects. According to Conaie (1997) cited in Walsh (2002):
In Ecuador the meaning and use of the concept of interculturality (…) initially arose in view of the transformation of the educational system and then oriented to the construction of a plurinational state and the transformation of public policies. In 1997, Conaie identified interculturality as one of nine ideological principles of its political project: the principle of interculturality respects the diversity of indigenous peoples and nationalities and other Ecuadorian social sectors, but in turn demands the unity of these in the field in the fieldeconomic, social, cultural and political (…) in a framework of equal rights, mutual respect, peace and harmony between nationalities. (p. two)
Hence we can point out that interculturality means reorganization in social, political and cultural, in coexistence between different peoples.
Therefore, we must bear in mind that interculturality is not only to respect and accept diversity, but a political-social process in order to build a relationship between societies with better living conditions, and include their ancestral knowledge and knowledge, but without departing from nature and its spirituality. That is why Lopez and Kluper (1999) indicate that indigenous peoples have great knowledge such as Botany, Medicine, Agriculture, Astronomy, etc. However, due to the lack of a writing system, knowledge was acquired and transmitted orally, with the risk of this knowledge being forgotten. Therefore, intercultural education, according to Aguilera (2004), is "the learning of values, skills, attitudes and knowledge" (p. eleven). In other words, it is a process in which there is an answer, to the conflicts present in multicultural societies. The objective of this education is to encourage a meeting of different ethnic groups, so that an exchange of knowledge based on equality is generated, retaining its own autonomy, in order to guarantee collective training, through shared knowledge (Aguilera, 2004). Here is the need to develop a bilingual intercultural education.
Bilingual intercultural education in Ecuador
Meanwhile, the history of bilingual intercultural education (EIB) in Ecuador begins with Cacuango in 1956, then in 1986 the Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador (CONAIE) is strengthened, there the EIB is strengthened as a political proposal. But in 1988 the Ecuadorian State establishes the indigenous Directorate of Bilingual Intercultural Education (Dineib). In 1993, the Bilingual Intercultural Education model (Moseib) was formalized, and in 2000 the nationalities education addresses were organized, within the framework of the different Zonal Networks of EIB, as explained by Catalina Vélez (2008). So what is bilingual intercultural education? because it is understood as a permanent and participatory social process that starts from the right that indigenous peoples have to their own identity, that is, their free expression, where the cultural identity of the different nationalities is respected.
But according to Muñoz (2017), educating interculturally is to expand a coexistence, where no one disrespects the opinion of the other and is at the same time serves to change attitudes regarding cultural diversity and transform cultural components. The fight for this education, began in 1946 with Dolores Caungo, who created the first bilingual school, she was an indigenous leader, who with her leadership brought changes in the life of the indigenous people. She referred to the fact that if the indigenous people learned to read and write, the interests of the rich were harmed. For this reason, there were few indigenous children who supported the school, for the professor’s abuse, so Cacuango taught them through “those considered clandestine schools” (González, 2014). Given these reasons, the indigenous peoples found themselves with the difficulty of accessing new knowledge and continued in the fight for their rights. This education is considered indigenous for the needs and interests of the various indigenous peoples, wanting to be recognized as human groups with their own particularities and with their intact beliefs.
So that EIB has as prior the result of experiences in indigenous education. That is why Rabbit Arellano (2008) states that in 1988, EIB was established with the creation of the National Directorate of Intercultural Bilingual Education (Dineib) with functions such as developing an adequate curriculum for each of the modalities of intercultural bilingual education, but according to the needs of the indigenous population. To integrate all citizens into educational activities, with equal respect for all. Currently, education is helped to social and individual enrichment through the acceptance of beliefs and differences of other cultures, because through dialogue and teaching values, a socialization that is based on respect,This benefit to a better social coexistence, as established by Kraine (1996).
However, this bilingual intercultural education has been affected by the lack of prepared teachers, which is why teachers must be chosen by the members of the community, so that the educator belongs to the same ethnicity of the students, soIt is clarified by Serrano (1998) that the bilingual school is forced to create teachers, because the majority did not end secondary education and many did not study the basic. And this is not only becauseEcuadorian society knows a little about some peoples, the only ones who know what true knowledge is like and how to transmit them are the same residents. But they need support to develop their knowledge and education more, for the conservation of ethnicities.
Currently, Ecuador has 18 villages and intercultural education is guaranteed through the Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador (2008) and endorsed by the Organic Law of Bilingual Intercultural Education, so the State has an intercultural education modelBilingual and the Ministry of Education that is responsible for generating educational guidelines. All this in sum of the constant struggle of the same peoples in the face of injustices and by breach of their rights. In this sense, the bilingual educational process supports the teaching and use of indigenous languages. Without neglecting that bilingual intercultural education not only addresses knowledge, but strengthens, develops and helps the identity, coexistence and knowledge of each indigenous people of Ecuador;since in the first education helps the students assume the value of belonging to their culture and its traditions;On the other hand, it favors the interaction of living together, but with respect because each one deserves;Finally in knowledge, it shows that there is no single way of perceiving the world.
The constant struggle that was caused by indigenous peoples for several decade, given the acceptance and approval of their rights in every way, have gradually achieved, this is reflected in the educational field, since being education.a process of socialization and endoculture of people through which physical abilities, skills, skills and forms of behavior are developed with a social purpose with an social purpose. Schools and schools were created where the teaching-learning process is taught in their mother tongue, in order to transmit the knowledge and knowledge that each people have, this shows that society is accepting the diversity that exists in the world. Since, at present, living in a slightly complex society, where sociocultural changes are experienced with people from different peoples, allows development in relationships between different cultural groups, this through understanding and adaptation to the new conditions. Finally, intercultural education is important, since this implies an adequate assessment of diversity, respect for people and the construction of an intercultural state, where an interrelation is allowed with the feared "other" and knowledge is sharedthat Ecuador becomes and maintained as a country rich in cultural diversity, for the beliefs and traditions that each people and indigenous nationality have.
- Arellano, a. C. (2008). Bilingual Intercultural Education in Ecuador. Otherness, 69-70.
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